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中進英翻譯系列講座(十)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: February 15, 2015 – 2:10 pm

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各位網友好,從今天起,「天地無用」網站要分享一系列英文翻譯與寫作的專題文章。有心學習「高階」翻譯與英文寫作的網友必定可以從中學到版主寶貴的實務經驗與技巧,請大家廣為宣傳。

參考文章:中進英翻譯系列講座(九)

參考文章:中進英翻譯系列講座(十一)

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二、以介系詞表明時間

translation
for:表示「一段時間」。

I once studied the guitar for three years.
(我曾經學過三年的吉他。)

My boss will be in Italy for the next ten days.
(老闆在接下來的十天會待在義大利。)
(註解)可以說My boss will go to Italy next Monday,但不能說My boss will go to Italy for the next ten days,難道去義大利要花十天?屁股都要坐爛了!

translation
in:表示「在某段時間內」,搭配否定句與最高級,或者跟first與last一起使用。

I haven’t seen him in months. = I haven’t seen him for months.
(我好幾個月沒見過他了。)

It was the worst storm in ten years.
(它是十年來損害最嚴重的風暴。)

This is the first letter I’ve had in three days.
(這是我三天來收到的第一封信。)

translation
in:表示「在某段時間之後」。

It will be ready in a week (= one week from now).
(一週後將可備妥。)

Mary learnt to drive in three weeks. (= After three weeks she could drive.)
(瑪麗花了三星期學會開車。)

translation
from + 起始點(starting point)。

I’ll be here from four o’clock onwards.
(我四點之後就會這裡。)

I work from nine to five.
(我是朝九晚五的上班族。)

From now on, I’m going to play table tennis every day.
(從現在起,我每天都要打桌球。)

From his earliest childhood he loved music.
(他以前從小就喜歡音樂。)
(註解)這裡的from不可換成since。然而,如果 from 表示「從一開始」(right from the start),就可以使用現在完成式。
She has been like that from (= since) childhood.
(她從小就如此。)

translation
since 要與完成式與完成進行式搭配,涵蓋的時間觀念是從某個時段延續到說話的時段,其他的狀況要改用 from 來說明。

I’ve been working since six o’clock, and I’m getting tired.
(我從六點就一直工作到現在,我已經有點累了。)

(比較)
The shop was open from nine in the morning, but the boss didn’t arrive until ten.
(這家店早上九點開始營業,但老闆十點才會到店裡。)
(註解)單純敘述從幾點開業,此處用 since 不恰當。因此,不要改成The shop was open since eight in the morning, and the boss didn’t arrive until ten。

translation
until:強調「直到……為止」:表示在某個時間點的前後,事態「有所改變」。

Harry was working for Microsoft until 1990, when he got a job at IBM.
(哈里一直在微軟工作到1990年,接著跳槽到國際商業機器公司。)──哈里現在沒有替微軟工作。此外,until之前的時態用過去進行式來表示「持續狀態」。

Until recently he was living in Taipei.
(他不久前還住在台北。)──他現在沒有住台北,而且until之前的時態用過去進行式來表示先前的「持續狀態」。

The ticket is valid up until next Sunday.
(這張票直到下禮拜天都還有效。)──be + vaild表示「持續狀態」(「有效」就是一種持續情況)。

translation
just:強調「此時此刻」(at the present)或者「接近此時此刻」(close to the present)。

I’ll be down in a minute – I’m just changing my clothes.
(我馬上就下去,我正在換衣服。)──「當下」(right now)

Tom has just phoned.
(湯姆剛打電話來。)──「不久之前」(a short time ago)

“Where is my tea?” “I’m just going to make it.”
(「我的茶呢?」「我馬上去泡。」)──「立即」(immediately)

“John seems to have disappeared.”
“No, he’s around. I saw him just last week.”
(「約翰似乎消失了。」「他還在。我上禮拜還看到他。」)──「最近」(as recently as)

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