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中進英翻譯系列講座(十三)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: February 28, 2015 – 9:58 am

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各位網友好,從今天起,「天地無用」網站要分享一系列英文翻譯與寫作的專題文章。有心學習「高階」翻譯與英文寫作的網友必定可以從中學到版主寶貴的實務經驗與技巧,請大家廣為宣傳。

參考文章:中進英翻譯系列講座(十二)


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現在簡單式

translation 一般用法
• 表示習慣
She smokes heavily.(她煙癮很大。)

Don’t believe what he says. (別信他講的話。)
(比較) Don’t believe what he said. (他之前講什麼都別信。)

• 說明狀態或能力
My wife works for an enginerring company.
(我太太在一家工程公司上班。)──狀態
I don’t drink. (我不會喝酒。)──能力
(比較) I’m not drinking tonight. (我今晚不想喝酒。)

• 表明事實或真理
The earth revolves around the sun. (地球繞太陽公轉。)

translation 「立即生效」或「剛剛完成」的動作
常見的情況如下:
• 指路、操作示範或報導動作
“How do I get to the station?” “You go straight on to the traffic lights, then you turn left….”
(請問火車站怎麼走?先一直走到紅綠燈,然後左轉……。)──問路與指路

• 電視或收音機播報運動比賽
Taylor shoots – and it’s a goal! (泰勒跳投,得分!)

• 在談話中表達意見或看法
I wish I were a millionaire.
(但願我是個百萬富翁。)
I fear that she may have been kidnapped.
(我怕她被綁架了。)

• 引述招牌與告示或者信件內容
What does that notice say? It says, “Keep off the Grass.”
(那個警示牌說什麼? 它說:「勿踐踏草皮。」)
What does he say in the letter? He says you still owe him three hundred dollars.
(他在信裡說了什麼?他說你還欠他三百塊。)

• 說完之後動作或情況立即發生
I now declare this meeting open.
(我現在宣佈會議開始。)
We wish you a happy new year.
(我們祝你新年快樂。)
With great sadness I announce that, effective immediately, I will be leaving RIOY to pursue other interests.
(我雖然極為難過,但仍要在此宣佈,我即日起將離開 RIOY 團隊去追尋其他夢想。)
I enclose (herewith) a check of 50 dollars.
(附上50 元支票一張。)
(比較)下列是書信的固定說法,以現在式表達時較為正式:
We write to advise you… / We are writing to advise you
I enclose my check for $200. / I am enclosing my check for $200.
I look forward to hearing from you. / I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

translation 新聞標題
W.T.O. Fails on High-Tech Tariff Deal
(世貿高科技産品關稅談判破裂)──已經發生的事
(比較)Adobe to acquire Macromedia
(Adobe 即將併購 Macromedia)──尚未發生的事

(比較)偶爾還是會看到標題使用過去式,如下:

title1

translation 預定行程
簡單式此時表示未來,說明排定好的行程。
Your bus leaves in fifteen minutes, so hurry up and finish your work.
(巴士十五分鐘之後就要開了,快點完成你們的工作。)
(比較)Your bus is leaving in fifteen minutes / Your bus will leave in fifteen minutes

When do the fireworks start?
(什麼時候會開始放煙火?)

The exhibition opens on January 1st and closes on January 31st.
(展覽一月一日開幕,一月三十一日閉幕。)
本地樂隊及樂迷的年度盛事《HUSH!! Full Band馬拉松搖滾音樂祭》,在11月23日將再度大搖大擺登場。
(“HUSH!! Full Band”, the hottest annual rock festival for local and regional bands and their many fans, is back on November 23.)

translation 描述或說明「想像」的情況
想像的事沒有發生,所以用現在式當作貫穿主軸的時態。
Some of my friends and I have a similar opinion regarding the way some toilets are designed here. Imagine (假設) having dinner at a restaurant, and all of a sudden your stomach tells you that what you had(過去事件) for lunch is 90 percent digested. What do you do? Well, of course, you simply get up and look for a place to ease the tension. You go asking where the toilet is, and when you get there, what do you see? A squat toilet! – Literally Wuman (吳大維週記)
(我和某些好友對於此地馬桶的設計看法類似。假如你在餐廳用餐,突然之間,你的胃通知你百分之九十的中餐已經消化掉了,你會怎麼做?當然,你會不加思索地起身,然後找地方「紓解壓力」。你會問廁所在哪裡,不過當你到了哪裡,會發現什麼?蹲式馬桶!)

translation 電影簡介
電影劇情並未真正發生,人們會假設情節內容是當下發生的事,所以採用現在式 (現在式與現在完成式)來描述場景。
【扭轉奇蹟】簡介:
The Family Man (2000) Plot:
Jack Campbell, a successful and talented businessman, is happily living his single life. He has everything, or so he thinks. One day he wakes up in a new life where he didn’t leave(過去) his college girlfriend for a London trip. He’s married to Kate, lives in New Jersey and has two kids. He, of course, desperately wants his life back for which he has worked 13 years for. He’s president of P. K. Lassiter Investment House and not a tire salesman at Big Ed’s. He drives a Ferrari and not a mini-van that never starts. And most importantly he doesn’t wake up in the morning with kids jumping on the bed. After a bad start, day by day he’s more confident in his new life and starts to see what he’s been missing. Turns out money’s good to have but that’s not everything.
(傑克坎貝爾是個成功且精明的商人。他過著快樂的單身生活,以為擁有自己一切,不料某天竟然墜入異樣的新生活。傑克突然發現,自己並未離開大學女友凱特而前往倫敦追尋夢想。他倆婚後住在紐澤西,生下了兩個小孩。傑克當然不想放棄奮鬥十三年的成果,極欲想回到原本的生活。他過去是 P. K. Lassiter 投資公司的總裁,不是在 Big Ed’s 賣輪胎的銷售員。此外,他出門是以法拉利代步,不是開著時常拋錨的箱型車。更重要的是,早上不會有小孩在床上蹦蹦跳跳擾他清夢。傑克起先諸事不順,後來卻活得愈來愈有自信,逐漸明白自己失去了什麼。他最後醒悟了,知道金錢雖好,卻絕非萬能。)

translation 跳出「時間框架」的現在(historical present)

Hong Kong’s Profile (香港簡介)(BBC)
1842 – China cedes Hong Kong island to Britain after the First Opium War. Over the decades, thousands of Chinese migrants fleeing domestic upheavals settle in the colony.
(1842年:第一次鴉片戰爭之後,中國把香港割讓給英國。數十年來,好幾千名中國人躲避中國內亂而避居此處。)

hong-kong_present-tense
(出處)http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-16526765

(比較)BBC在同一個網頁的圖片說明使用過去式。
Hong Kong was already a busy port in the 1890s, when this picture was taken after the passing of a damaging typhoon(香港在1890年代時已經是繁忙的港口城市。這張照片是颱風肆虐過香港後所拍攝。)

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本網頁內有許多概念及說明係取自『顏斯華』老師之『英文文法大師』套書,感謝顏先生允許轉載,亦請讀者拜訪顏老師之網站 www.yentzu.idv.tw。

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