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中進英翻譯系列講座(十八 )
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: September 11, 2016 – 10:03 am

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各位網友好,從今天起,「天地無用」網站要分享一系列英文翻譯與寫作的專題文章。有心學習「高階」翻譯與英文寫作的網友必定可以從中學到版主寶貴的實務經驗與技巧,請大家廣為宣傳。

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◎ 現在完成進行式

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1. 從過去持續到現在的動作
現在完成進行式:強調過程的持續或從未間斷。
現在完成式:強調累計的結果。

She has been working for IBM since she graduated from college.
(她打從大學畢業之後就一直在 IBM 工作。)──強調無間斷
She has worked for IBM since she graduated from college.
(她從大學畢業後就在 IBM 工作。)──強調時間很長

Scientists believe that the universe has been expanding steadily since the beginning of time.
(科學家認為,宇宙從太初以來就不斷膨脹。)

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2. 動作或情況剛剛結束,但其影響還持續到現在

“You look very tired.” “I’ve been writing reports all night.”
(你看起來很疲憊。/是的,我整晚都在寫報告。)

“You look hot.” “I’ve been running.”
(你看起來好像很熱。/是啊,我剛跑完步﹝我剛剛一直在跑步﹞。)
(解說)如果指明某個特定的時間點,就不可以使用現在完成進行式,要用過去的時態(過去式或者過去進行式),因為在英語的時態觀念中,「現在」與「過去」是涇渭分明。
“You look tired.” “Yes. I was cycling non-stop until five o’clock.”
(你看起來很累。/是的,我騎腳踏車一直騎到五點。)
(… I’ve been cycling non-stop until five o’clock.)

“Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long?”
(抱歉,我來遲了。你等了很久了嗎?)

“Man, that sauce of bibimbap really didn’t agree with me.”
“Yeah, me too. I’ve got the runs as well. I’ve been running to the bathroom every few minutes or so.”
(我好像因為吃拌飯裡的辣椒醬吃壞肚子了。)
(我也是啊,都拉肚子了,一直跑廁所。)

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3. 表示重複的動作或行為
說明這些動作或行為「不斷發生」。

The insurance salesman has been calling on John every day for the past week.
(這位保險業務員過去一個禮拜天天都來拜訪約翰。)

“I’ve been meaning to call you?” (我一直想打電話給你。)
“Really? I was thinking the same as you.” (真的嗎?我也正想給你打個電話。)

I’ve been playing a lot of tennis recently. (我最近常打網球。)
I’ve played tennis three times this week. (我這禮拜打了三次網球。)

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4. 用於推論或質疑
“You look frightened. And you are out of breath, too. Have you been running for your life?” (你好像嚇壞了,而且還氣喘如牛,你剛剛在逃命啊?)

“Look at his smirk. He must have been eavesdropping on our conversation.”
(你看他的奸笑,他剛剛一定在偷聽我們的談話。)

“What’s this? Hrh… Disgusting! Have you been picking your nose again?”
(這是什麼?真噁心,你剛剛又在挖鼻孔了是不是?)

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5. 現在完成進行式與現在式的差異
現在式:單純說明過去持續到現在的動作或情況。
現在完成進行式:一、(過去的)動作或情況剛剛完成,而且情況可能會有改變 。二、強調持續的時間。

I have a violin lesson every two weeks.
(我每兩週上一次小提琴課。)
I’ve been having violin lessons every two weeks, but I think I’ll make it every week.
(我每兩週上一次小提琴課,但我想改成每週上一次。)

“Who is she talking to?” (她正在跟誰說話?)
“Sorry, I’m late, darling.” “That’s all right. I’ve been talking to this boy.”
(親愛的,很抱歉,我遲到了。/沒關係,我剛剛一直在跟這個小孩聊天。)

“It’s raining again.” (又下雨了。)
It’s been raining since Christmas. (It’s raining since Christmas.)
(從聖誕節之後,雨一直下個不停。)

 

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本網頁內有許多概念及說明係取自『顏斯華』老師之『英文文法大師』套書,感謝顏先生允許轉載,亦請讀者拜訪顏老師之網站 www.yentzu.idv.tw。





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