header-pic
冠詞的一般用法
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: February 23, 2009 – 9:24 am

三個冠詞 (the, a, an) 都是形容詞。the 叫定冠詞 (definite article),因為它明確地指出名詞;a 和 an 叫不定冠詞 (indefinite articles),因為它們未明確指出名詞。這些字也叫做名詞限定詞 (noun determiners),因為它們的後面跟著名詞。

即使學會了冠詞的所有應用規則之後,你仍會發現有許多情況你不知道在何處使用正確的冠詞或是否使用冠詞。

1. 不定冠詞接單數可數名詞:

I just had a cup of coffee. = I just had one cup of coffee. (我剛喝過一杯咖啡)
Three coffees, please. (我要三杯咖啡)

Have you got a shampoo for dirty hair? (你已經洗過髒頭髮了嗎?)

A man stopped me on the street this morning. = Someone/Somebody stopped me on the street this morning.
(今天早上有個(男)人在街上叫住我)

My brother is going out with a French girl.
(我哥哥跟一個法國女孩談戀愛)
(說明) 讀者(聽者)不知道或者不在乎那個法國女孩是誰

2. 不定冠詞接單數可數名詞:用於分類 (classifying) 或 個例來說明整體
what class, group, or type somebody or something belongs to, or what job, role or position somebody or something fills, etc.

She is a dentist. (她是個牙醫)

A doctor must like people. (= Any doctor must like people.)
(醫生必須要有愛心)
//I’ve been to the doctor. (You know which one: my doctor)
//I’ve seen a doctor about my cold. (我看了(某位)醫生來治療感冒)

It is so easy that even a child can do it. = It is so easy that any child can do it.
(這件事很簡單,連三歲小孩都會)

I’m looking forward to being a grandmother. (我正期待著要當祖母)

I used my shoe as a hammer. (我拿拖鞋當榔頭)

I have never seen a dolphin. (我沒看過海豚(這種動物))
(說明) 這句不能翻譯成:我沒看過一隻海豚 (什麼話??!!)

She is looking for a husband.
(她正在尋覓另一半)

A spider has eight legs. (蜘蛛(這種動物)有八隻腳)
(說明1) 「一隻蜘蛛有八隻腳」的解釋在這裡雖然可以成立,但要記住 a 在這邊是有「歸類」(classifying) 的涵義。
(說明2) For example, a spider has 8 legs, two spiders have 16 legs, and three spiders have 24 legs. If this pattern continues, how many legs do six spiders have? (這裡的意思就是「一隻蜘蛛有八隻腳」。)

3. 不定冠詞接「經過轉換」的不可數名詞:

This is a good coffee.
(這杯咖啡好喝)

We’ll have a/one coffee and a/one black tea.
(我們要一杯咖啡,一杯紅茶)

The country produces a light oil of which quality is considered the best of its kind.
(這個國家生產某種輕油,其品質被視為同類油品中最好的)

4. 不定冠詞接「有限定範圍或種類」的抽象名詞:

There was an abundance of good food at the party. (宴會上有豐盛的食物)
= There was good food in abundance at the party.

He has a good command of English. (他的英文能力很好)

We need a secretary with a knowledge of Chinese. (我們需要一位懂中文的秘書)

You’ve been a great help. (你幫了不少忙)

I need a good sleep. (我需要好好睡上一覺)

5. 定冠詞接單數或複數可數名詞 (表示限定):

The girl is my friend. (這個女孩是我的朋友) →特別限定

The girls over there are my friends. (那邊的女孩們是我的朋友) →特別限定

Move the books off that chair and sit down.
(把書從那張椅子移開後坐下)
//Books are expensive. (書很貴) (all books/ books in general)

6. 定冠詞接單數普通名詞 (表示觀念或共有知識):

In A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Shakespeare suggested a link between madness and artistic creativity: ‘The lunatic, the lover, and the poet’, he wrote, ‘Are of imagination all compact’.
(瘋子、戀人與詩人都是幻想做成的) →代表「觀念」

Life would be quieter without the telephone. →代表「觀念」
(如果少了電話,生活將會安靜一些)

The violin is more difficult than the piano. →代表「觀念」
(小提琴比鋼琴還難學)

Schools should pay less attention to examination success, and more attention to the child. →代表「觀念」
(學校不應過於注重考試成績,反倒是要多留意學生)

We need more feedback from the customer in order to improve our products. →代表「觀念」
(我們需要從消費者得到更多的回饋意見來改善產品。)

Do not lean against the door.
(請勿倚靠車門) → you know which one!

Did you lock the car? (車子鎖了沒?) → you know which one!
(比較) We hired a car to go to Taipei. (我們僱了一部車前往台北)

7. 定冠詞接抽象名詞或物質名詞 (限定範圍的轉用):

The sugar is bad for you. (吃這種糖對你不好)
//Sugar is bad for you. (吃糖對你不好)

He gave up his claim to the throne, all for the love of a plain woman.
(他放棄繼承王位,只因迷戀一位平凡女子)
//Love is ephemeral. Art is eternal. (愛情轉眼成空,藝術永垂不朽)

The light was beginning to fail. (= It was gettindark.)
(天色漸暗)

The light is too poor to read by.
(這光線太暗不能看書)
//Nothing can travel faster than light. (沒有任何東西比光更快)

8. 「無冠詞」用於複數普通名詞 (泛指):

Good horses are hard to find nowadays.
(這年頭好馬難求)

What do frogs eat? (青蛙吃什麼?)

Children ususally start walking at around one year old.
(小孩通常一歲左右會開始走路)

Do you like horses? (你喜不喜歡馬?)

9.「無冠詞」用於複數普通名詞 (單純指複數)

We met some nice Chinese girls on holiday.
(我們度假時遇到一些親切的中國女孩)

Have you got any matches? (你有火柴嗎?)

Both my parents are architects. (我父母都是建築師)

10.「無冠詞」用於不可數名詞 (包含抽象、物質名詞):

I hate instant coffee.
(我不喜歡即溶咖啡)

Whisky is made from barley.
(威士忌是以大麥釀製)

Life is complicated. (The life is complicated.)
(生命是錯綜複雜的)
//I am studying the life of Beethoven.
(我正在研究貝多芬的生平) – 限定

Nothing can travel faster than light. (沒有任何東西比光更快)
//The light is too poor to ready by. (這光線太暗不能看書)

//不可數名詞與複數名詞可以用 some/any 或者 「無冠詞」來修飾
I think there’s some butter in the fridge. (我想冰箱應該有些奶油)
I didn’t buy (any) eggs. (我並沒有買雞蛋)





學習類別:  

2 Responses »

  1. 請問’他是一位英國人’,英文怎麼說

    謝謝!

  2. 你可以說 : He’s an Englishman. He’s from England. He’s a native of England. He’s a naturalized citizen of England. 這幾種說法應該可以包含所有狀況

留下心得(Leave a Reply)

You must be logged in to post a comment.