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英文單字 “Whenever” (每當) 的用法
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: May 30, 2009 – 10:41 am

版主曾經被學生問到,該如何用英文來表達『每當/每回』的概念?其實,要正確使用英文表達這種說法還得傷點腦筋,原因是中英文在這點的表達上雖然非常類似,卻隱藏一些小玄機,以致於某些號稱英文高手的作者或老師都曾經陰溝裡翻船。有興趣的網友請參考本文。

 

◎ whenever (every time that/as often as)
用現在式或過去式來說明「習慣」或「例行/重複發生的事情」,不與未來式連用。

Whenever she comes, she brings a friend.
(她每次來都帶個朋友) – 講述習慣,當然要用現在簡單式。

The roof leaks whenever it rains. (每逢下雨屋頂就漏雨)
(說明)
The roof will leak whenever it rains. (這句話有語病 – 錯誤的用法)
我們可以說:The roof will leak when it rains. 或者 The roof will leak if it rains. 或者 The roof leaks when (= if) it rains.

I avoided going out with him whenever possible.
(只要可能,我都避免跟他一起出去)  – 指過去的事情

Every time he phones I always seem to be in the bath.
(他每次來電,我好像都在泡澡。)

(補充說明)
If/When 也可表達「每當」的意思 (repeated, predictable events)
When/If you heat ice, it turns into water.
When/If I am in Liverpool, I usually stay with my sister.

 

◎ whenever = at any time/ regardless of when (隨時/只要)
I’ll discuss it with you whenever (any time) you like.
(你想什麼時候跟我談,我就什麼時候跟你談。/只要你想跟我談,我隨時跟你談。)

Come to see me whenever you have time.
(如果你有空的話,隨時來找我。)

You can tear the magazines and newspapers and take the pages with you, so that you can read them whenever you have time.
(你可撕下雜誌或報紙,然後隨身攜帶撕下的文章,只要你一有空閒就可以直接閱讀。)

(錯誤範例)
Whenever we have a vacation, I’ll travel to someplace in Taiwan.
這是台北市補教協會為85年度大學聯考英文翻譯試題所提供的解題,解題者是我們可愛的徐薇老師。本句英文犯了幾處錯誤,顏斯華先生指出後並加以更改。更正後的句子行文邏輯都較為通順,並且符合英文的用語習慣。
Whenever (= Every time) I have a vacation, I take a trip to somewhere around the island.

 

◎ when – 有時可用來建議「未來每當發生何事」時應該如何處理。此時,”when” 約略等同於 “if”
When a hurricane is approaching, listen to your local radio and TV stations for updated storm information.
(每當颶風來臨,請收聽地方電台或收看電視來獲取颶風的最新動態。) – 這是老外所寫的防颶風建議事項

(不妥的範例)
Whenever there’s a typhoon coming, we should check our rooftops, windows and doors for safety, and store water and food for emergency.
(每次颱風來臨,我們都必須檢查屋頂與門窗,並且儲存飲水與糧食以備不時之需。)
(版主說明)
這句話是顏斯華先生文法書的例句,版主認為本句的邏輯有瑕疵。”whenever” 所說明的事情已經發生,不應該用來提供建議,本句中的 “whenever” 最好改成 “when”,而且 “there’s a typhoon coming” 感覺有點中式英文 。有關於 “There is…” 句型的用法,請參照:『「There + be / There + 動詞」 句型』。






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