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定冠詞 (The) 的使用準則
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: February 28, 2009 – 5:37 am

1. 已經提過的名詞

She’s got two children: a boy and a girl. The boy’s fourteen and the girl’s eight.
(她有兩位小孩:一男一女。男的 14 歲,女的 8 歲。)

I have a true story to share. It’s the story of a man who married his high school sweetheart.
(我要分享一個真實故事。這個故事是關於一位娶了他中學情人的男人。)

An office technician got a call from a user. The user told the tech that her computer was not working.

Like other backdoor programs, Sub7 is distributed with a server and a client. The server is the program that victims must be enticed to run in order to infect their machines, and the client is the program with a GUI that the user runs on their own machine to control the server.

應用這項準則時,指涉名詞的用字並非要完全相同,只要指的是同一事物或概念即可。請參考下面的例子:
A solar water heater can be constructed as shown in Figure 2. At the top left of the water heater is a cold-water inlet, where water flows into the apparatus. The main portion of the heater consists of many coils of plastic pipe connected together in an accordion fashion.

2. 名詞後跟隨限定子句或片語

Who’s the girl over there with John?

What did you do with the camera I lent you?

Some scholars have argued that Einstein’s wife helped him develop the theory of relativity. (the +名詞 + of )

This is the network design that our group recently developed.
(暗示研究小組最近只研發出一種新的網路設計。)
This is a network design that our group recently developed.
(暗示研究小組最近完成數種網路設計/作者不甚暸解研發內容。)

3. 共有的知識

The Chernobyl accident drew attention to the dangers presented by poorly designed, inadequately maintained nuclear reactors.
(作者假設大多數的讀者都知道車諾比核電廠的意外事件。)
An accident that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 drew attention to the dangers presented by poorly designed, inadequately maintained nuclear reactors.
(倘若讀者不清楚車諾比核電廠意外事件,作者最好採用上述寫法。)

Nei-Yuan Hu, the Taiwanese violinist who won the grand prize at last year’s Queen Elizabeth Violin Competition, is playing in Carnegie Hall next week.
(作者認定讀者都聽過胡乃元這個名字。)
Nei-Yuan Hu, a Taiwanese violinist who won the grand prize at last year’s Queen Elizabeth Violin Competition, is playing in Carnegie Hall next week.
(作者認定讀者不太可能聽過胡乃元這個名字。)
//Violinist Nei-Yuan Hu, who won the grand prize at last year’s Queen Elizabeth Violin Competition, is playing in Carnegie Hall next week. (這種寫法可避開定冠詞)

To study the roots of linguistic meaning, we can consider the process called radical interpretation.
(作者確信讀者知道何謂「徹底分析」,而且在學術領域中只有一種 radical interpretation。)
To study the roots of linguistic meaning, we can consider a process called radical interpretation.
(作者認為讀者不知道何謂「徹底分析」。)

(獨一無二/世上大家都知道的事物)
the world, the sun, (the) earth, the sky, the ground, the Pacific Ocean, the Yellow River, the north pole
the United States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of China
the Sphinx (獅身人面石像) / the Mona Lisa (蒙娜麗莎畫像)

(特定的歷史事件)
the chemical revolution / the industrial revolution (工業革命)

(自然環境) – 因為眾人都很熟悉這類事物
the town (城市), the mountains (山區), the fog, the future, the country (鄉下), the rain, the weather, the universe, the sea, the wind, the night, the sunshine, the seaside

4. 不言而喻的人或事物 (the = you know which one(s) )

定冠詞的後面可接單數或複數。

Will you please pass me the salt? (麻煩把鹽遞給我。)
//We need some more salt. –此處並非指特定的鹽

Have you fed the dogs? (你餵狗兒們了嗎?)
//Do you like dogs? (你喜歡狗嗎?)

Do you have the time? (請問現在幾點?) = What’s the time?
//Do you have time? (你有空嗎?)

The children are in the garden. (孩子都在花園裡呢。)

The milkman was late this morning. (送牛奶的人今早來晚了。)

Have you seen the paper? (你看見報紙了嗎?)

In case of emergency on the train, please use the intercom by the door to contact the driver.
(萬一列車發生緊急狀況,請利用門邊的對講機聯絡司機。)

When the train is crowded, please move toward the center of the carriage, check your possessions and your approaching destination.
(當列車擁擠時,請向車廂內部移動,並檢查隨身行李與留心是否已到達您的目的地。)

Sindy jumped into a taxi and said, “Take me to the train station.”
(司機,我要去火車站。)
// Sindy jumped into a taxi and said, “Take me to a train station.”
(司機,我要去一個火車站??!!)

5. 特殊形容詞

(形容詞最高級) – 限定
Largest, oldest, fastest, leftmost, most expensive
→His family owns the oldest house in the city.

(序數形容詞) – 限定
First, second, nth, last
→The first batter hit the third pitch out of the park.
(例外) A second approach to the problem → second 代表「另一個」。

(有限定功能的形容詞) – 限定
Only, sole, exact, ideal, present, same, following
→We went to the same school.
→This is the only road to San Francisco.
→He is the ideal husband for her.
→The sole way to find the exact solution for the ideal case is by using the following method, which is the same method as that used in our earlier paper.
Exact solution = 獨一無二的解答

6. 泛指總稱或概念

Future historians will surely regard the invention of the integrated circuit as one of the most important technological developments of the twentieth century.
(未來的歷史學家一定會認為,積體電路的發明是二十世紀最重要的技術發展之一。)

Because of rampant poaching, today the tiger is in danger of becoming extinct.
(略同於) = Because of rampant poaching, today tigers are in danger of becoming extinct.

The computer has changed the way business is conducted in many industries.
(略同於) = Computers have changed the way business is conducted in many industries.

The chimpanzee is an endangered species. / The chimpanzee is in danger of becoming extinct. (黑猩猩是瀕於滅種的動物)
//這句話不能解釋成:這隻黑猩猩是瀕於滅種的動物,一隻動物的死活決定某種物種的滅亡與否,邏輯顯然不通。(This sentence is about the whole chimpanzee family, not about individuals.)

Let’s not waste time re-inventing the wheel. (別浪費時間去做別人已經做好的事情)
//別再花時間去重新發明輪子(這種東西)了!!

7. the + 形容詞 (表示某類或某國的全體份子或成員)

The French are famous for their cooking. (法國人以善於烹飪聞名)

The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.(富者愈富,窮者愈窮)

The Chinese are famous for using natural herbs to treat high blood pressure.
(中國人素以善用草藥治療高血壓而聞名於世)

When the rich make war, it is the poor that die. - Jean Paul Sarte
(富人發動戰爭,賠上性命的卻是窮人)

8. 隱含的獨特性

Remove the new toner cartridge (先前提過) from it bag. Grasp the tab of the sealing tape (獨特) and firmly pull the tape out of the cartridge (先前提過). Insert the cartridge (先前提過) into the printer (先前提過), taking care not to touch the photoconductive drum (獨特).
//作者在本文之前已經先提過碳粉匣,但從未提及密封帶或感光鼓。然而,讀者從冠詞便可推斷只有一條密封帶 (the sealing tape),而且感光鼓 (the photoconductive drum) 也只有一個。

If all else fails, straighten a paper clip and insert it into the emergency hole of your drive.
//作者建議讀者將迴紋針插入緊急退出孔。迴紋針隨處都有,沒有必要使用特定的迴紋針,因此使用不定冠詞 a。





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