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NBA 籃球英文術語解說 (A – F)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: July 9, 2009 – 6:40 am

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Air ball = a shot that misses the basket completely and does not hit either the rim or backboard
「籃外空心」、「麵包」、「三不沾」,表示球投出後沒觸碰籃框或籃板。

Alley-oop = an offensive play in which one player throws the ball near the basket to a teammate who jumps, catches the ball in mid air and immediately scores a basket, usually with a slam dunk.
「空中接力」。一個運動員把球拋向空中,另一個隊員在空中接住球把球扣入籃筐。

and 1 = 加罰一球、小上加一、進算加罰。進攻球員出手時被防守球員犯規,但球還是進了,因此被判額外加罰一球。

Arena = an indoor sporting arena for basketball games
比賽場館。湖人隊的主場名叫 “Staples Center”, 超音速隊的主場則叫 “Key Arena”。

Assist = a pass to a teammate that leads directly to a field goal; the scorer must move immediately toward the basket for the passer to be credited with an assist.Only one assist can be credited per field goal.
助攻。

Backboard = the rectangular structure (6′ x 3 1/2′) to which the basket (籃框) is attached.
籃板。

Backcourt = the area from the midcourt line to the end line, furthest from the offense’s basket (進攻籃框).
後場,球隊要防守的半場。球賽進行到後半場時,雙方會交換防守半場。

Backdoor play = a play on which an offensive player slips behind the defense along the baseline, usually from the weak side, to receive a pass ball
「走後門」、「溜底線」、「後門戰術」,表示當隊員在罰球線周圍接球後,另一個球員立即從弱側切入籃下,接到隊友的傳球投籃得分。

Baseline (End line) = the boundary line behind each basket
底線。球場兩端的邊界線。

Basket (Ring /Hoop) =a 10 feet (3.048 m) high hoop (the goal) through which a basketball player must place a ball under organized rules in order to score 
籃筐。

Ball handler = the player with the ball; usually the point guard (控球後衛) at the start of a play.
持球員。

Bank shot = a shot where the ball is first bounced (or banked) off the backboard at such an angle that it then drops into the basket.
擦板得分。NBA 最會使用這項招數的就是馬刺隊的 Tim Duncan。

Bench = The location, where coaches and players not in the game sit.
板凳休息區。
“Bench” player (reserve) 就是替補隊員或板凳球員。

Beat the defender = an offensive player, with or without the ball, is able to get past an opponent who is guarding him.
繞過 (騙過) 防守球員。

Blind pass = a pass from a ball handler (持球員) who does not see his receiver, but is estimating where he should be.
隱蔽傳球、聲東擊西、盲目傳球、不看接球同伴而直接傳球。

◎ Blocked shot = the successful deflection of a shot by touching part of the ball on its way to the basket, thereby preventing a field goal.
  火鍋、蓋帽。

Blocking (Foul) = the use of a defender’s body position to illegally prevent an opponent’s advance. Blocking is the opposite of charging.
阻擋犯規,屬於防守犯規 (Defensive Foul) 的一種。

Boo = sound made to show contempt for a player (n); show disapproval or contempt for a player by shouting “boo” 
噓聲 (n);發出噓聲(v)。球迷發洩不滿的一種方法。

Bounce pass =a pass that strikes the floor before it reaches the receiver (receiving player).
地板傳球、擊地傳球。

Boosters = alumni supporters of college teams
啦啦隊。

Boxing out = a player’s attempt to position his body between his opponents and the basket to get rebounds and prevent the opponents from doing so.
(搶籃板)卡位、搶籃板球擋人,即搶籃板球時站在對手和籃之間,用身體擋住防守隊員,以爭取有利位置爭搶籃板。以前公牛隊的羅德曼最會卡位搶籃板。

Break (fast break) = this offensive move is also called the run-and-shoot offense
快攻。

Brick = a slang term used to describe a shot attempt that hits the rim or backboard and misses badly. 
球打在籃筐或籃板後彈出來。主場球迷在客隊罰球時會拿一些東西在罰球隊員的眼前不停的晃動,擾亂他的視線,以達到干擾罰球的目的。
常常投籃不進的球員,會被戲稱為 “brickplayer”。
brick = fill in or block or seal an opening with bricks (用磚塊堵住洞口)

Buzzer beater = a shot that’s made just before the buzzer sounds to signal the end of a period.
比賽每節結束前的最後一擊。”buzzer” 是比賽用的蜂鳴器。

Captian = the chief of a basketball team
隊長。隊長是場上唯一有資格與裁判討論規則和判罰的球員。

Catch n’ Shot = 拿球後立刻跳投。

Center circle = the circular area at midcourt from which jump balls (跳球) are taken
中圈。球賽開始時雙方球員跳球爭球權的圓圈。

Charging = an offensive foul which occurs when an offensive player runs into a defender who has established position
帶球撞人,進攻犯規 (Offensive Foul) 的ㄧ種。當進攻球員強行前進時衝撞早已站定位的防守球員。

Coach = a person who trains basketball players for contests
教練。”Head coach” 是總教練,”Assistant coach” 則是助理教練。

Coast-to-coast = from an end line to another end line
從球場的一端到另一端(n)。例如:a coast-to-coast pass (全場長傳)。

Clear out (one-on-one showdown) = players space on the court away from basket giving the ball-handler more room to work his magic
進攻球員遠離籃框,挪出空間讓持球員個人單打 (個人秀)。

Commissioner = the president of the NBA
美國職籃總裁。

Conference = The current league organization of the NBA divides basketball teams into two conferences of three divisions with five teams each.
聯盟。美國職籃分東西兩個聯盟 (Eastern Conference 和 Western Conference),每個聯盟各自分成三區,每區各有五隊。兩區聯盟的冠軍會進行七戰四勝制的比賽,贏者即為當年的 NBA 總冠軍。

Court = the 94′ x 50′ area bounded by 2 sidelines and 2 end lines containing a basket at each end, on which a basketball game is played.
 球場或賽場。主場稱為 “home court”。主場優勢叫做 “home court advantage”。

Court vision = a player’s ability to see everything on the court during play, such as where his teammates and defenders are set up, which enables him to make better choices in passing
傳球視野。控球後衛通常都具備良好的傳球視野,才能在比賽中助攻得分。

Crossover dribble = when a ball handler dribbles the ball across his body from one hand to the other.
交叉運球過人 /換手運球並且過人,Tim Hardaway 的招牌動作。

Cut = a quick offensive move by a player willing to get an open position for an eventual shot.
切入。

Cylinder = the imaginary area directly above the basket where goaltending or basket interference can occur.
籃框上方的假想圓柱區,球員不得在此區干擾進球,否則就是 “goaltending”  (空中違例截球)。

Debut = a player’s first appearance in a basketball game
首次上場。

Dear ball = It occurs after each successful field goal or free-throw attempt, after any official’s whistle or if the ball leaves the court. Dead ball stops play which is then resumed by a jump ball, throw-in or free-throw.
死球。

Defense = the act of preventing the offense from scoring
防守。當客隊進攻時,主場球迷會在體育館音效師的帶領下高喊 “Defense! Defense!”。

Defensive rebound = a rebound of an opponent’s missed shot
防守籃板。

Deny the ball = prevent an offensive player from getting the ball by staying between him and the ball handler and guarding him closely
繞前防守。

Disqualification = After the fifth personal foul on a player, the player is disqualified from the game
判罰下場,五犯畢業離場 (縮寫:DQ.)。

Division = The current league organization of the NBA divides basketball teams into two conferences of three divisions with five teams each.
賽區。NBA 共有六個賽區,東西區聯盟各有三個賽區。

Double – double = a basketball term, defined as an individual performance in a game in which a player accumulates a double digit number in any two of these categories: points, rebounds, assists, steals, and blocked shots.
雙十 / 兩個雙位數表現,亦即球員一場比賽員兩項技術統計指標 (得分、籃板、助攻、抄截和火鍋封蓋) 達兩位數。

Double-team = two teammates join efforts in guarding a single opponent.
雙人包夾、雙人夾擊。

Double dribble = A violation in which a player resumes dribbling after having stopped a dribble series, or dribbles the ball with both hands simultaneously
兩次運球。違例的ㄧ種。

Downcout (Down the court) = the direction a team on offense moves, from its backcourt into its frontcourt and towards its own basket.
進攻方向 /路線。

Downtown = Means far from the basket, often means beyond the three-point line
三分線外。
* 美國播報員常將「投三分球」說成 ‘Shoot from Downtown’。

Draft = the method by which NBA teams annually select college or foreign players to their teams, designed to promote balanced competition in the NBA.
選秀,即 NBA 每年都會舉辦的選秀大會,目的要是挑選大學或者國外戰將,以平衡聯盟各隊的戰力。

Dream Team = the name given by the media to the U.S. basketball team that won the gold medal at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. The members of this team were Charles Barkley, Larry Bird, Clyde Drexler, Patrick Ewing, Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, Christian Laettner, Karl Malone, Chris Mullin, Scottie Pippen, David Robinson and John Stockton. 
美國夢幻隊。

Dribble (Dribbling) = when a player repeatedly pushes, pats, taps or bats the ball toward the floor with one hand to cause the ball to bounce back up to either of his hands; used to advance the ball or keep control of it.
運球。

Dribble series = a number of consecutive dribbles which end when a player allows the ball to rest in one or both hands; a player is only permitted one dribble series before he must pass or shoot.
連續運球,持球者在傳球或者投籃之前只能連續運球一次。

Drive to the basket = to move rapidly toward the basket with the ball
帶球上籃。

Dunk = when a player close to the basket jumps and strongly throws the ball down into it; an athletic, creative shot used to intimidate opponents.
灌籃。

Elbowing = It is a violation if a player vigorously or excessively swings his elbows, even if there is no contact.
大動作揮肘。 

End line (Baseline) = the boundary line behind each basket
底線。

Established position = when a defensive player has both feet firmly planted on the floor before an offensive player’s head and shoulder get past him; the offensive player who runs into such a defender is charging.  
站定位。防守球員雙腳已經站穩,進攻球員帶球硬上便會被判帶球撞人。 

Fadeaway shot (Fadeaway jumper) = A fadeaway in basketball is a jump shot taken while the offender is jumping backwards, away from the basket. The goal is to create space between the shooter and the defender, making the shot much harder to block.
後仰式跳投、後仰投籃。

Fake (Feint) = a deceptive move to throw a defender off balance and allow an offensive player to shoot or receive a pass; players use their eyes, head or any other part of the body to trick an opponent.
假動作。

Fast break (the run-and-shoot offense) = Fast break generally begins with a defensive rebound by a player who immediately sends an outlet pass toward midcourt to his waiting teammates. These teammates can sprint to their basket and quickly shoot before enough opponents catch up to stop them.
快攻;快速突破。
* 鳳凰城太陽隊 (Phoenix Suns) 最擅長發動快攻。

Finals, NBA = the championship series of the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the conclusion of the sport’s postseason (季後賽) each June.
總決賽。半總決賽是 “Semifinals”。

Field goal = when the ball enters the basket from above during play; worth 2 points, or 3 points if the shooter was standing behind the 3-point line.
投籃得分,包括兩分球與三分球的投籃 (縮寫:FG.)。

Finger roll = The finger roll is a specialized type of basketball layup shot where the ball is rolled off the tips of the player’s fingers.
低手上籃時手指撥球的動作。這項動作是由中鋒 Wilt Chamberlain 發明,後來變成名將 George Gervin 的絕招。 

Flagrant foul = unnecessary or excessive contact against an opponent
惡意犯規 (沒有必要或動作過大的犯規)。

Floor violation = a player’s action that violates the rules but does not prevent an opponent’s movement or cause him harm; penalized by a change in possession.
違例。一種犯規行為,會造成球權轉換,但不會讓對方站上罰球線。

Forwards = the 2 players on the court for a team who are usually smaller than the center and bigger than the guards; often a team’s highest scorers.
前鋒。

Foul = actions by players which break the rules but are not floor violations; penalized by a change in possession or free-throw opportunities.
犯規。 個人犯規是 “personal foul”;技術犯規叫做 “technical foul”;全隊的累計犯規叫 “team foul”;。 

Foul lane (3 second lane) =the painted area 19′ x 16′ (12′ in college) bordered by the end line and the foul line, outside which players must stand during a free-throw.  This is also the area an offensive player cannot spend more than 3-seconds at a time in.
三秒區或罰球區。

Foul line (Free throw line) = the line 15′ from the backboard and parallel to the end line from which players shoot free-throws.
罰球線。

Foul shot = See free-throw.
罰球。

4-point play = a 3-point shot followed by a successful free-throw.
四分打,通常是三分跳投得手後外加撈到對手犯規。
 

Franchise = a professional team.
職業球隊。美國職籃每隊的明星球員 (star player) 就叫做 “franchise player (star player around whom a franchise is built)”。

◎  Free agent (restricted) = an NBA player whose contract has expired and who has received a “qualifying offer” from his current club which provides a salary level predetermined by the collective bargaining agreement. While this player is free to negotiate an offer from a new team, his current team has a right of first refusal to match that offer, thereby obligating him to remain with his current team. 
完全自由球員

Free agent (unrestricted) = an NBA player who has completed his 3rd NBA season and is free to negotiate a contract with other NBA teams without his current team having a right of first refusal.
受限制的自由球員

Free throw (Foul shot) = an unguarded shot taken from the foul line by a player whose opponent committed a personal or technical foul; it is worth 1 point.
罰球 (縮寫:FT.)。
Foul trouble = When a player is nearing the limit for personal fouls before he is ejected from the game, or a team is nearing the limit in each period after which all fouls become shooting fouls.
犯規麻煩,球員由於受到犯規次數的約束而帶來的麻煩,例如犯規太多,再犯一次或兩次規就將被罰下場,有犯規麻煩的球員通常都會被換下場休息。

Frontcourt = the area between the midcourt line and the end line closest to the offense’s basket.
前場。對手的半場為前場,即本方隊員攻擊的那ㄧ個半場。

◎ Full-court press = when defenders start guarding the offense in the backcourt.
全場緊迫盯人。

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