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NBA 籃球英文術語解說 (G – O)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: July 11, 2009 – 7:59 am

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Game clock = The clock that displays how much time remains in each of the four 12-minute quarters of an NBA
計時器。比賽用時鐘。

Give-and-go = A fundamental offensive play where a basketball player passes to a teammate, then cuts to the basket and receive a quasi-immediate return pass for an open layup or dunk.
(進攻方持球球員的) 傳切戰術 /傳切配合。籃球基本戰術之一,進攻隊員將球傳給另隊友 (give),然後伺機向籃下切入,接到隊友的回傳球上籃 (或灌籃) 得分 (go)。

◎ Goal-tending =  防礙中籃,分為進攻方防礙中籃和防守方防礙中籃兩種。
* 球離開拋物線的最高點後,直到可以確定球進不進為止,都不能把球撥掉。

Guards = the 2 players on each team who are the smallest on the court. They usually handle setting up plays and passing to teammates closer to the basket.
後衛。通常由個子較小的球員扮演這個腳色,負責組織進攻與助攻。

Guarding = the act of following an offensive player around the court to prevent him from getting close to the basket, taking an open shot or making easy an pass, while avoiding illegal contact.
防守工作。

Gunner = a frequent shooter
經常投籃的球員。有時可以指某個球員很「獨」,拿到球就想投籃,絲毫不配合戰術運用。
Shoot the ball every time you get your hands on it. When the coach asks what the heck you’re doing, tell him you’re the team’s “Top Gunner.” LOL!

Hack-a-Shaq = a basketball defensive strategy initiated by former Dallas Mavericks coach Don Nelson to hinder the scoring ability of the opposing team by deliberately fouling one of its opposing players, the player chosen being the one with the lowest free throw percentage among players on the court.
* 一種犯規戰術,台灣媒將其翻譯成「駭客戰術」。這主要是針對歐尼爾所屬球隊發展的戰術,在關鍵時刻讓罰球超爛的俠客上罰球線,藉此減少對手的得分。

Half-court or set offense =when a team takes the time to develop a play in its frontcourt, such as the give-and-go or a screening play; opposite of fast break.
半場組織進攻。

Hand-checking = a defending player uses his  hands on an opponent to slow the offensive player’s progress
a. 一種防守技術,即用手接觸對方的身體來跟蹤對手的位置,合法的 hand-checking 允許用手接觸對方的身體來跟蹤對手的位置,但手部不允許加力,也不允許阻礙對手視線。
b. 防守犯規的一種。防守隊員用手阻擋進攻隊員的走位,不能張開雙臂阻擋防守隊員的移動。

Hang time =The amount of time a player can stay in the air while attempting a shot
滯空時間,即運動員投籃時在空中停留的時間。Magic Johnson (湖人隊的魔術強森) 當年就是以滯空時間過人而聞名。

High percentage shot = a shot that is likely to go in the basket, such as a layup
命中率高的投射 (比如上籃)。

High post = The imaginary area in the frontcourt around the free throw circle, outside either side of the foul lane at the free-throw line, where the center is often positioned
罰球線的周圍,高位。

Hook shot = A difficult one-handed shot, usually taken from the Low Post. The player is sideways to the basket, while the shot is taken with a sweeping, hooking motion releasing the ball above the head with the hand farther away from the rim.
鉤射,有時也直接用 “hook” 表示。

Illegal defense =designed to prevent the use of the zone defense; it¹s more like a 3-second violation for the defense, in which no defender can stay in the lane for more than three consecutive seconds without closely guarding an offensive player.
非法防守。區域聯防即為非法防守。

Injury list = a public list that indicates players who can’t play becaue of injry
傷兵名單。如果某位隊員受傷不能參加比賽,根據 NBA 的規定必須要將其列入傷員名單,以便對球迷負責。

In the paint = being in the foul lane area which is painted a different color.
站在罰球區。

Inbounds = the area within the end lines and sidelines of the court; also the act of bringing the ball into this area by means of a throw-in.
a. 球場底線與側邊線之間的區域。
b. 發邊線球。

Incidental contact = minor contact usually overlooked by officials
不經意的身體接觸,裁判通常都會視而不見。

Inside shooting = shots taken by a player near or under the basket
內線投籃。 

Jam (Dunk) = a player jumps in the air and slams the ball into the basket.
扣籃。”one-handed jam” 稱為單手扣籃;”two-handed jam” 叫做雙手扣籃。著名歌星 Michael Jackson 和 Michael Jordan 合作拍過一部 MTV,名字就叫 “Jam”。

Jersey = basketball clothing
運動員的背心,也作 uniform。有些為球隊明星退役時,他的 jersey 也跟隨他一起退役,然後高懸於球隊主場的天花板上,表示以後其他運動員不能再使用這件 jersey 上的編號了。

Jump ball = 2 opposing players jump for a ball an official tosses above and between them, to tap it to their teammates and gain possession; used to start the game (tip-off) and all overtime periods, and sometimes to restart play跳球;爭球。

Jump shot (Jumper) = an attempt to score by jumping, usually straight up, propelling the ball in an arc into the basket
跳投;跳射投籃。

key or keyhole = the area at each end of the court consisting of the foul circle, foul lane and free-throw line; named for the shape it had years ago.
罰球區,也作 “free throw lane”。籃球剛發明的時侯罰球區是細長的,其寬度比罰球弧的直徑還要短,形狀就象把鑰匙,所以也稱之為 “the key”。

keepaway game = a tactic used by the team that is leading near the end of the game to keep the ball from its opponents to prevent them from scoring while using up time off the game clock; also called freezing.
拖延戰術。籃球戰術之ㄧ,領先球隊在比賽即將結束時,避免對方拿球來拖延時間。

Layup (laying) = a shot taken after driving to the basket by leaping up under the basket and using one hand to drop the ball directly into the basket (laying) or to bank the ball off the backboard into it (layup).  
上籃。

Lead Pass = A pass thrown well ahead of a running teammate.
把球快傳到隊友的前面讓其進攻

Leading the receiver = when a passer throws the ball where he thinks a receiver is headed.
預測傳球。 

Ligament =tought, flexible tissue in a person’s body that connect bones and holds organs in position.
韌帶。十字韌帶 (cruciate ligament) 是膝關節中的韌帶,乃是運動員最容易受傷的部位。

Live ball = as soon as a ball is given to a free-throw shooter or a thrower on a throw-in, it is live, but the game clock does not restart until the ball is alive.
活球。

Locker room =a room or area designated for changing one’s clothes
更衣室。其他說法還包括:dressing room。

Loose ball =ball that is alive but not in the possession of either team.
比賽雙方都沒掌握球權的活球。

Loose ball foul =used to describe a fould when neither team is in immediate control of the ball. This is important in the NBA since they don’t count offensive fouls in the team fould count (for shooting penalty).
雙方均無持球權時的犯規 (通常發生於雙方爭奪籃板球時)。

Lottery = an annual event held by the National Basketball Association in which teams participate in a lottery process to obtain rights to pick promising young players, including collegiates and players from abroad
確定選秀順序的過程。以前是通過擲硬幣決定,因其不確定性所以稱之為 “lottery”。又稱為 “The NBA Draft Lottery”。

Low post = an imaginary area outside either side of the foul lane close to the basket.
低位。三秒區內,籃筐兩側,靠近底線的那部分。

Lower percentage shot = a shot that is less likely to go in the basket, such as one thrown by a player who is off balance or outside his shooting range.
低命中率投籃。選手如果在喪失平衡或者超過投射範圍出手,命中率自然會降低。

Man-to-man defense = the defensive style where each defensive player is responsible for guarding one opponent.
人盯人防守。

March Madness = NCAA Tournament; an annual competition between 64 college teams to crown a national champion; also called March Madness because the three-week-long event is held during March; see also Final Four.
瘋狂三月,NCAA 大學籃球聯賽。 

Match-ups = any pairing of players on opposing teams who guard each other.
攻防上各個位置的對應關係。

Mismatch = bad or inappropritate match; Creating a favorable skill or size mismatch for individual basketball players  
防守錯位、錯位防守。明白點是指進攻與防守方體型、體能或速度差距太大,不是最佳的防守配對,造成這組一對一防守幾乎會被破的意思。

MVP (Most Valuable Player) =an award recognizing the NBA player who contributed most to the regular season or to the Finals.
例行賽或者總冠軍站最有價值球員。

NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) =a voluntary association of over 1,200 colleges and universities in the U.S. whose role is to establish standards and protect the integrity of amateurism for student-athletes.
美國大學體育協會。

Meniscus = In anatomy, a meniscus is a moon-shaped figure. It usually refers to either of two specific parts of cartilage of the knee.
半月板。膝關節中的一塊軟骨,是運動員容易受傷的部位,運動員常因為半月板撕裂而進入傷員名單。

Move = Basketball moves are generally individual actions used by players in basketball to pass by defenders to gain access to the basket or to get a clean pass to a teammate. 
移動。這個詞在 NBA 裏出現的頻率特別高,比如,一個漂亮的移動我們說”Great move!”;向後轉身的擺脫我們稱之為 “Spin move”。

Net = A sleeve, 15 to 18 inches long, made of white mesh, that’s suspended from the rim.
籃網。檢驗球是否入筐的標誌,原Utah的David Benoit在扣籃時,球砸在自己的頭上從籃筐中彈出,而且整個過程中球又沒有觸及籃網,結果進球被判無效。

No-charge area = the “no-charge zone” in basketball is a little half-circle below the rim. once a player steps into that half-circle than a charging penalty cannot be called.
進攻有理區。根據去年的新規則在兩個籃下各畫定一以籃筐的中心為圓心,以 4 英尺為半徑的半圓(虛線),此區域被稱作進攻有理區,在進攻有理區裏不會被吹判進攻犯規。

No look shot = 假裝看著某位隊友,不望向籃框,但卻投球。

Off the dribble =a shot taken while driving to the basket. Shooting off the dribble is a vital part of an offensive player’s arsenal. If you are a point guard, shooting guard, or small forward, a large amount of your shot attempts are going to come off the dribble.
運球後急停跳投。

Offense =the team with possession of the ball
進攻(方)。

Offensive rebound = a rebound of a team’s own missed shot
進攻籃板;前場籃板球。

Officials =the crew chief, referee and umpire who control the game, stop and start play, and impose penalties for violations and fouls.
泛指所有的籃球比賽裁判。

Outlet pass = a pass thrown by a player after getting a rebound to a teammate, generally near midcourt, to start a fast break.
搶到籃球板後的第一傳,通常都是隔場長傳來策動快攻。

Out of bounds =the area outside of and including the end lines and sidelines.
出界。  
 
Outside shooting =shots taken from the perimeter.
邊線跳投。 

Overtime (OT) = a five-minute extra period that is played to decide the outcome of a game tied after a regulation play (48 minutes).
延長加賽;加時賽。時間為5分鐘。

Over the limit = when a team commits 5 or more team fouls per NBA period (4 in each overtime); 8 or more per WNBA half; 7 or more per half in college; this team is also said to be in the penalty. 
團隊犯規超過次數限制。

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