header-pic
英文時態概論
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 3, 2009 – 2:28 pm

時態是英文的基本元素,每個英文句子都會運用到時態,唯有正確瞭解時態才能正確理解英文文章。英美人士能夠輕鬆駕馭時態,功力已達爐火純青的境界,他們撰寫的文章與口說的話語都極富立體感,常利用繁複的時態交替來表達細膩的情感,華人學習英文時應該先通盤暸解時態。

◎ 從一封信件談起≈≈
下面是某位網路創業者於美國次貸風暴後寫給會員的電子郵件,我們可從中略窺老美是如何運用時態。

Dear members,

By now I‘m sure you know that due to the economy and other factors RIOY has suffered some huge setbacks in its income over the last few months. I have personally seen to it that all payments were sent up until the last few days of October. At that point my personal resources were no longer sufficient to continue sending out $150,000 per month.

This problem has been brought about by MFM and LSO. LHN and MAXeGEN could not be doing better and will not only allow RIOY to survive but to prosper.

Because of these financial reversals it is necessary to stop both MFM and LSO immediately but I am determined that no one will lose a penny of their deposits. Everyone will get at least what they put into RIOY back and those that work with us and participate in LHN and/or MAXeGEN will still become quite well off.

You will be eligible to obtain an Executive VIP type of guaranteed monthly income equal to 80% of your total MFM and LSO deposits and the amount, if any, you are owed for tripling. If you fail to receive that amount after one year we will then start to reimburse you a total of double the amount used to provide that guarantee and you will still have the income that has been achieved through LHN and MAXeGEN. This program will go into effect November 15th for those we have not already talked to and those who do not contact us by then stating they do not wish to participate.

For example. Let’s say you have a one time deposit in the old tripling program of $2500. You would have $7500 coming in tripling in months 10,11, and 12 less $500 for LHN. So you have a $7000 credit from tripling. You also have put $2,000 in the MFM program. $7,000 + $2,000 = $9,000. You may send in an additional $1,000 and become a full fledged Executive marketer or just use your $9,000. 80% x $9,000 = $7200. You would be guaranteed to be making $7200 after 12 months in the programs (LHN and Maxegen) or you would receive double your money back or $18,000.

Those who opt to not participate will receive a refund of their MFM, LSO and tripling payments within the next thirty-six months. I appreciate everyone’s patience and understanding during this trying time. In order to be as fair as possible to everyone, unfortunately I will not be able to make exceptions to this plan.

I will not be taking questions on the call tonight so if you wish to speak with me personally please submit a support ticket with your phone number and the best time to call. Please do not call, IM or email me directly because these types of interruptions simply serve to get me to lose track of what I was doing and make me less efficient. I will be answering support tickets as quick as I can. Do keep in mind that it will take some time for me to get through to everyone.

Thank you for your continued support and I still look forward to accomplishing great things together.

Sincerely,

Karl Green

(版主淺見) 這位老兄的信件包含許多時態變化,藉此表示情感、假設、客氣、謙虛、婉拒、單純描述事件以及強調事態結果。如果你對這封信已經了然於胸,那我就要恭喜你,你對時態的掌握已經趨近於老美,閱讀文章必定如魚得水。

◎ 時態基本概念
下列五種英文時態常出現於文章,說明如下:

現在式:表達(1) 事實與習慣 (2) 說明與提供建議。

過去式:說明過去已經完成的行為,通常要提供明確的時間點。

現在完成式:
(1) 描述過去已經存在,至今仍然有效的行動或狀態。
(2) 過去曾經發生,至今仍然有效的行為。
(3) 表達「最近」才完成的行為。

現在進行式:說明 (1) 當下正在發生的行為 (2) 近期即將進行的行為。

未來的表達方式:描述尚未發生的行為,藉此 (1) 單純提供資訊或進行詢問 (2) 表達個人意志 (3) 表達想法與情感。

文法只是正統英語歸納的習慣用法,絕對不應該凌駕於語言邏輯之上,因此理解與應用英文時態時,請務必多加思索,勤於背訟正確例句,以及詳查資料,以免以訛傳訛,誤用時態還恍然不知。





學習類別:  

留下心得(Leave a Reply)

You must be logged in to post a comment.