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英文「現在完成式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: August 1, 2009 – 3:14 am

本篇要講解『現在完成式』。顧名思義,英美人士會用這種時態來說明已完成的事件,而這種事件具有「累計與持續」的特質。請網友多留注版主所舉的例句,細心體會英美人士是如何運用『現在完成式』,同時不要將『現在完成式』與『過去式』混用。

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究單項細節。

◎ 「累計」用法
所使用的動詞大多具有「非持續」的特質

Up to the present, some two hundred people have been killed in the conflict.
(目前為止,大約有兩百人已經在這場衝突中喪生。)

An earthquake measured 5.7 on the Richter Scale hit Tokyo early this morning. No casualty report has been received so far.
(今天早上,東京發生芮氏地震儀 5.7 度的地震,目前尚未收到任何傷亡報導。)

I’ve made many Chinese friends since I came to live here.
(搬來這裡之後,我已經結交許多中國朋友。)

◎ 「持續狀態」用法
與 since (自從…) 和 for (有…之久) 連用

I have been a Jazz fan since my school days.
(我從學生時代就一直是個爵士樂迷。)

“I’ve wanted a baby since I was a girl.”
(我從少女時代就一直想生個小孩。)

He has been under house arrest since the military junta seized power in a coup fifteen years ago.
(軍事執政團十五年前發動政變取得政權,從此之後,他就一直遭到軟禁。)

I have lived in Taipei for ten years. I know this city very well.
(我已經在台北住了十年,對這個城市非常熟悉。) – 還住在台北
I have lived in Taipei for ten years. Something inside me has kept saying: enough! I finally quit my job last week, and I am going back to my home town in the country.
(我已經在台北住了十年,然而內心卻有個聲音不停對我說:夠了。我上禮拜終於辭去工作,不久便要回到鄉下老家) – 表達「最近」才完成的行為

I lived in Taipei for ten years.
(我在台北住過十年。) – 目前已經不住在台北了
I have been living in Taipei for over 10 years and have been teaching IELTS exam skills for nearly 8 years.
(我已在台北住了十年以上,教導 IELTS 的考試技巧也將近有 8 年的時間。) – 這是一位美國仁兄在網站強調並推銷自己的經驗,句中說明他會在台北持續住下去,也會持續教下去。

One of these days he’ll realize what a fool he’s been.
(他不久就會明白,自己一直有多愚蠢。)
//one of these days = soon; at some time in the future 這幾天/不久
//one of those days = an especially unpleasant or unlucky day 特別不幸的日子
I’ve had one of those days: my train was late, and I lost my wallet. (真是倒楣,火車不但誤點,我的錢包也丟了。)

◎ 「已經事件」用法
描述過去某個不確定時間發生的事件或行動。這些事件與行動跟「現在」有某種程度的關連,或者成為常伴我們的一種經驗。

現在完成式連結「現在」與「過去」。因此,我們可以將現在完成式表述的內容以現在式來表達相同的意思。請參考以下例句:

I have broken my leg. → My leg is broken now.
Have you read the Bible? → Do you know the Bible?
Some fool has let the cat in. → The cat is in.
China has invaded Taiwan. → China is at war with Taiwan.
Mary has had a boy. → Mary now has a baby.
My dog has died. (My dog died last year.) → My dog is dead.
All the wars in history have taught us nothing. → We know nothing.
My experience at school has given me a permanent hatred of authority. → I hate authority because of my experience at school.

** 沒有接時間副詞的完成式
使用完成式表示說話者寫作者仍然關心事件或行動的結果。

We’ve come up with a plan. (我們已經想出一套計畫。)

All the crews on board the stranded ocean liner have been rescued.
(擱淺商船的所有船員皆已獲救。)

I have passed the citizenship test.
(我已經通過公民考試。)

“I’ve heard so much about you.” (久仰大名。)
“Really? Was it good or bad?” (喔,都聽說了什麼?好話還是壞話?)

I’ve travelled a lot in America. I was (once) the North American correspondent of The Spectator. (meaning: I know America. )
(我去過美國很多地方,以前是 The Spectator 的北美特派員。)
I’ve travelled a lot in countries like India, Morocco and Peru, where you see a lot of poverty and donkeys and horses working incredibly hard alongside.
(我去過很多國家,譬如印度、摩洛哥與秘魯。那些國家貧窮落後,沿路可見驢子與馬匹在辛勤工作。)

(比較1)
I travel a lot. Is a MacCover a good idea for me? I hate lugging around a lot of stuff and then having to unpack it all at the security checking.
(我經常旅行,MacCover 這項產品適合我嗎? 我不喜歡帶一大堆行李,然後在安檢處打開全部行李。) – 還會繼續經常旅行
I’m going to get a job that lets me travel a lot.
(我要找一份能讓我經常旅行的工作。)

(比較2)
We’ve learnt enough to pass the exam. (The exam is still to come.)
(我們已經學夠了,通過考試沒問題。) – 還沒考試,著眼於現在。
We learnt enough to pass the exam. (The exam is over.)
(我們當時充分學習,因此通過考試。) – 考試已過,因此用過去式。

(比較3)
Look what John’s given me. (focus on the gift)
(你看約翰送我的東西。) – 用完成式,著眼於現在,專注點在「禮物」。
Who gave you that? (focus on the past action of giving)
(誰送你那個東西?) – 用過去式,著眼於過去發生的事情,所以專注點在「送禮之人」。

(比較4)
I can’t go on holiday because I have broken my leg.
(我摔斷了腿,不能去度假。) – 現在腿還是斷的。
I can’t go on holiday because I broke my leg.
(我摔斷過腿,現在不能去度假。) – 邏輯不通。一朝被蛇咬,十年怕草繩。
這句話的語病在於,”broke my leg” 是過去事件,如果要說明其影響結果現在還有效,就必須使用能過連結「過去」與「現在」的現在完成式。版主將這句話修正如下:
I broke my leg last week. It hasn’t healed properly since, so I can’t go on holiday.

(比較5)
Have you brushed your teeth last night? (錯誤的句子) (Did you brush your teeth last night? – okay!)
Have you brushed your teeth this morning? (said in the morning – okay!)
英文的過去與現在壁壘分明,如果已經標明動作完成的時間,只能用過去 (簡單) 式表達,不可用現在完成式。
如果說話者認為時間還未結束 (如第二句中的「目前」仍屬於早上),可以使用現在完成式。

**與時間/頻率副詞連用
時間副詞:just, recently, lately, already, yet (尚未), still, finally, at last,
頻率副詞:often, frequently, always, several times, a couple of times

I’ve just cleaned up the kitchen. (我剛剛把廚房打掃乾淨。)

He has just left. (他剛離開。)

I have already passed the citizenship test. (我已經通過公民考試。)
I have not yet passed the citizenship test. (我尚未通過公民考試。)
I still haven’t passed the citizenship test. (我仍然未能通過公民考試。)

Have you typed my report already?
(你把我的報告打好了嗎?) – 期待對方回答 「是」
Have you typed my report yet?
(你把我的報告打好了嗎?) -單粹中性的問話

I’ve met him in the bar a couple of times.
(我在酒吧碰過他好幾次。)

I have always received junk mails from this company.
(我經常收到這家公司的垃圾郵件。) – 以後還會繼續收到

She has always warned us about the danger of playing in the woods.
(她一直警告我們,叫我們不要在樹林玩耍,她說那裡很危險。) – 她還會繼續嘮叨

I have often put myself in a perspiration, pursuing or stoning a dog or any animal which I saw tormenting another merely because it felt itself the stronger.
(當我看到一隻狗或者其他動物,只因自認比較強壯便去欺負另外一隻動物,我便會追打或者拿石頭丟牠,常讓自己跑得滿身是汗。)

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