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英文「現在完成式」的使用時機 (2)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: September 19, 2009 – 6:09 am

本篇要講解『現在完成式』。顧名思義,英美人士會用這種時態來說明已完成的事件,而這種事件具有「累計與持續」的特質。請網友多留注版主所舉的例句,細心體會英美人士是如何運用『現在完成式』,同時不要將『現在完成式』與『過去式』混用。

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究單項細節。

 

◎ 「曾經」用法
與 once, ever, never 連用

Have you ever seen this man? Yes, I’ve seen him before.
(你見過這個人嗎?我以前見過他。)
//Have you ever seen this man? I saw him last month. – 若明確指出時間,就必須使用過去式,不能用完成式。

I’ve only met her once. (我只見過她一次面。)

She has never been to America.
(她從沒去過美國。)
She has never been to America before.
(她以前沒到過美國。) – 這是她第一次的美國行

“Have you ever seen an elephant?” “Yes, I have.”
(你見過大象嗎?見過。)
//”an elephant” 中的不定冠詞 “an” 是表示類別 /分類的概念 (classifying),指的是大象這種動物,而非一隻大象,詳細說明請參考:『冠詞的一般用法』。

“Haven’t we met before” (我們是不是在哪見過面?)
“We have?” (有嗎?)
“I believe we’ve met.” (我們一定在哪裡見過面。)

“You look like you’ve been to hell and back.”
(你怎麼搞成這樣?)
“I got dumped, feel drunk, and have a terrible headache.”
(我被甩了,這陣子總是喝酒,現在頭疼得癘害。)

The last time I saw Peter was at our graduation ceremony, and I have never seen him since.
(我上一次看到彼得是在我們畢業典禮的時候,以後我就再沒有見過他。)

(補充說明)
ever 的用法:
1. at any time up to the present (從過去的時間直到現在;曾經)–與完成式連用
“Have you ever flown a helicopter?” “No, never.”

2. at any time (任何時刻;從來) –用於否定句與疑問句,或用於表示懷疑或條件的句子中
Do you ever wish you were rich?
(你曾經希望過自己很富有嗎?)  – 過去到現在

Nothing ever happens in this village.
(這個村裏從未發生過任何事。)  – 過去到現在

She seldom, if ever, goes to the movies. (她難得看電影。) –現在式說明事實

If you ever visit Taipei, you must come and stay with us.
(你如果到台北來,一定要來跟我們一起住。) – 未來

(補充說明)
I’ll never, ever let you down. (我絕對不會讓你失望。)
I’ll never, ever sleep with a guy on a first date. (我不會第一次約會就跟男人上床。)
I won’t sleep with you. Never, ever. (我絕不會跟你上床的。)  
Never say never. (不要太武斷/不要太過自信/話不要說得太滿/不要死鴨子嘴硬)

Q: Have you ever wondered why that girl in the movie was playing hard to get?
(你是否想過,電影中的那個女孩為何要一直假裝清高呢?)
A: I will never, ever sleep with a guy on a first date. I don’t have strong feelings on the moral field, but I believe the “playing hard to get” attitude gets you nowhere and I do LOVE sex.
(我絕對不會第一次約會就跟男人上床,不是因為我很有道德感,而是我相信「故作清高」不會讓人得到想要的結果,我可是很喜歡做愛的。)

 

◎ 特殊的現在完成式結構

以下的現在完成式的用法與中文思維邏輯有所不同,是我們常犯的錯誤。

1. 說明第一次/第 n 次的經驗
大多數的情況都使用現在式
This is the first time I have seen a full orchestra.
(這是我第一次見到編制完整的交響樂團。)

This is the second time I have seen a 3D movie.
(這是我第二次看立體電影。)

It is the first time ticket prices have risen in six years.
(這是六年來票價第一次上漲。)

This is the fifth time you’ve asked me the same question.
(同樣的問題你已經問我第五遍了。)

It was the third time he had been in love that year.
(那已經是那年他第三次談戀愛了。)

(說明)
a. 以上例句都表示過去的經驗,因此使用現在完成式。然而,中文感覺卻以現在式來表達這種情況,下筆時常會誤用為現在式。

b.英文與中文在時態的表達雖有所不同,但行文時仍然要符合邏輯,不能太過拘泥,請參考下列英美人士所寫的例句。

  • (使用現在式)
    Right now is the first time in history that anyone can grab the opportunity presented by the Internet to make a real full-time income working from home.
  • “Do you enjoy carpentry work?”
    “Yes, I do. It is the first time I have done it.” (已經完成)
    “Yes, I do. Right now is the first time I am doing it.” (正在進行)
  • It’s the first time I’m visiting this website, and I’m pleasant with the way you’re talking about events and people. (使用現在進行式,說話者目前正在瀏覽該網站)
  • Right now is the first time I’m touring to the bigger cities. I’m in San Francisco right now; next city will be Seattle, New York, Chicago, then Los Angeles. (使用現在進行式,表示這一陣子持續的行為)
  • Normally Mars is not visible with the naked eye. However right now, or soon to now I not sure which, Mars will be closer to Earth than it has (been) in 65,000 years or somewhere in that neighborhood. So right now is the first time in a very long time that Mars will be visible to the naked eye. (使用未來式,事件尚未發生)
  • Last Tuesday was the first time that I did it. (使用過去式)
    = Last Tuesday was the first time that I have done it. (使用完成式)

2. 「It is …years/a long time since…」的句型用法

It is fifteen years since we last met.
(從我們上次見面到現在已經有十五年了。)

It is a long time since we last heard from him.
= It is a long time since we have heard from him. (有人說這是英式用法,但版主不會去使用這種句型)
(我們已有好久沒有聽到他的音訊了。)

“How have you been? It’s been such a long time since we’ve seen each other.” (最近怎樣?真是好久不見了。)
“Good, just really busy with school.” (還不錯,只是忙著課業。)

How long is it since you last had a visitor?
It is five years since we last had a visitor.
= We haven’t had a visitor for five years.
(你們多久沒有訪客了? 我們已有五年沒有訪客了。)

(說明)
就版主的理解,”How long has it been since you last had a visitor?” 這種說法已經逐漸被人們接受 (不管是否為積非成是)。英文單字 “since” 前面通常都用完成式,為何唯獨這種句型要用非要用現在簡單式?美國人或多或少也會搞不清楚吧!我們甚至可以發現下面這種邏輯不合的句子:

“The guy you’re looking for has just left.”
“For how long ago?” – 邏輯怪怪的!
“I don’t know. A couple of hours, maybe.”

3. 「It is …best/worst…」的句型用法

He is the best teacher I have ever known.
(他是我知道最好的老師。)

This is the worst champagne I have ever tasted.
(這是我 (喝過) 最難喝的香檳。)

It’s one of the most interesting books I’ve ever read.
(這是我讀過最有趣的一本書。)

This is the strangest debate I’ve ever seen.
(這是我看過最奇怪的辯論。)

 

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