英文「過去完成式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: November 3, 2009 – 7:10 am

◎ 當作「現在完成式」的過去式

“I’m so nervous. I’ve never been to a blind date before.”

She said she was very nervous because she had never been to a blind date before.

The big blow came when I was ten. My grandfather had been ill since early that year, making the already tight family finance even more pinched. In summer, the management of the coal mining company my father was working for decided to shut down the min and laid off all the workers. My father had worked in the coal mining industry – which was all we had in our little town – all his life. He didn’t possess any skills outside the field, and had never worked away from home. Even worse, it was during a time of nation-wide recession when manufacturing industries could offer very few extra jobs…
(我十歲那年家中遭逢重大打擊。爺爺自年初起就臥病在床,家中原本捉襟見肘的財務更加吃緊。到了夏天,我父親工作的煤礦場管理階層決定關閉礦場並資遣員工。煤礦業當年是我們那個小鎮唯一的產業,父親一輩子都在那裡討生活,他沒有任何業外的技能,也未曾離家出外工作。更糟的是,那時又碰上全國經濟大衰退,即便製造業也無法提供多少額外的工作機會。) – 這段文字出自於顏斯華先生的文法書。

*It (This) was the first time 句型*
He was already thirty five years old, and it was the first time he had been in love.

◎ 過去完成式與時間連接詞
我們通常使用時間連接詞 (time conjunctions) 來說明事物或動作發生的先後順序,在此情況下,過去完成式可保留或者簡化成過去式。譬如:

After he (had) finished his exams he went to Paris for a month.
(考試完後,他去了巴黎一個月。) – after 已經明確表示行為的先後順序

I went shopping after I (had) cleaned up the kitchen.
(我打掃(完)廚房之後便去逛街購物。) – after 已經明確表示行為的先後順序

As soon as I (had) put the phone down it rang again.

When I arrived at the restaurant the next morning, she had just completed a letter to her son, who was away at college.
(當我第二天早上到餐廳去時,她剛寫好準備寄給外地讀大學兒子的一封信。) – 用過去完成式說明到達時早已經寫好信

*過去完成式可標明率先發生的行為或動作,其不受隨後發生事物的影響。然而,用過去式表達連續動作時,表示第一個動作導致 (lead to) 其後的動作,彼此之間有所謂的因果關係 (a cause-and-effect link)。

When I had opened the windows I sat down and had a cup of tea.
這句話可改寫成:After I opened the windows, I sat down and had a cup of tea.
// (比較)
When I opened the window, the cat jumped out.
(我一打開窗戶,貓就跳了出去。) – More natural than “When I had opened the window, the cat jumped out”.

When I had written my letters I did some gardening.
// (比較)
When I wrote to her she came at once.

When he closed the door, I began to scream. (他關門時我開始尖叫。)
When he had closed the door, I began to scream. (他關好門時我開始尖叫。)

◎ 表達過去「未完成的願望」或「不再有的想法」

She had expected to be the first to arrive, but she turned out to be the last.

I had hoped that we would be able to leave tomorrow, but it’s beginning to look difficult.
(我原本希望明天就可以離開的,可是目前看起來似乎很難。) – 句子時態從過去完成式直接跳躍到現在進行式

“In your Camery, what kind of gas mileage do you get?”
(你那輛Camery 一公升能跑多少公里?)
“Not as good as I had hoped.”

He had intended to make a cake, but he ran out of time.

** originally (原本) 這個單字可以伴隨過去完成式來使用
字典的解釋: originally = used to describe the situation that existed at the beginning of a particular period or activity, especially before sth was changed.

Originally, we had intended to to go Scotland, but we never got further than Edinburgh.

// 不過,如果拉長時間軸來看,originally 銜接的句子用過去式也可說得通
The book was originally conceived as an autobiography, but it became a novel.

The school was originally very small.

** if, wish, would rather 之後接過去完成式,表示講述的事情過去並未發生。
If I had gone to university, I would have studied medicine.
//Now she wishes she had gone to university.

I wish you had told me the truth.

I’d rather she had asked me before borrowing the car.

I really don’t think it’s necessary to go into all the different places this movie goes wrong – the script and actor’s inability to stand out make this film hard to watch – and then it simply falls apart with plot holes that are glaringly obvious and dialogue that simply doesn’t work 99% of the time. I had hoped for a fun, action-filled movie with a bit of comedic relief from Rock, but I was instead greeted with almost 2 hours of boring and unimaginative junk.
評論員先以現在式說明對影片的看法 (描述實情),然後以過去完成式表達看片前的期待 (非事實的過去),以過去式表達看片後的失望 (已發生的過去事實)

I had believed in reincarnation. But the Bible disillusioned me.

I had hoped to attend your birthday party, but my son was to compete in his school’s track race on that day.

source: Catholic Digest http://www.catholicdigest.com/article/its-never-too-late-for-love/2
Boys became a scarce commodity in high school because they went off to war as soon as they graduated. I remember that day in 1943 when two cousins of mine came to visit us and persuaded me to ride back on the bus to Birmingham to visit them for a week. This was an unusual chance for me, so I went. When I came home, I learned that you had already gone into the Navy. You had come to see me but I was not there. Since we had no telephone, there was no way to call me, and I had thought you were not leaving until the next week. (我當時以為你下一個禮拜才會離開)


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