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英文「過去完成式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: November 3, 2009 – 7:10 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究單項細節。
◎ 當作「現在完成式」的過去式
將現在完成式的概念運用在過去。

*在轉述句中*
“I’m so nervous. I’ve never been to a blind date before.”
(我好緊張,以前都沒相親過。)

She said she was very nervous because she had never been to a blind date before.
(她說她好緊張,因為她從未參加過相親會。)

*回憶過去*
The big blow came when I was ten. My grandfather had been ill since early that year, making the already tight family finance even more pinched. In summer, the management of the coal mining company my father was working for decided to shut down the min and laid off all the workers. My father had worked in the coal mining industry – which was all we had in our little town – all his life. He didn’t possess any skills outside the field, and had never worked away from home. Even worse, it was during a time of nation-wide recession when manufacturing industries could offer very few extra jobs…
(我十歲那年家中遭逢重大打擊。爺爺自年初起就臥病在床,家中原本捉襟見肘的財務更加吃緊。到了夏天,我父親工作的煤礦場管理階層決定關閉礦場並資遣員工。煤礦業當年是我們那個小鎮唯一的產業,父親一輩子都在那裡討生活,他沒有任何業外的技能,也未曾離家出外工作。更糟的是,那時又碰上全國經濟大衰退,即便製造業也無法提供多少額外的工作機會。) – 這段文字出自於顏斯華先生的文法書。

*It (This) was the first time 句型*
He was already thirty five years old, and it was the first time he had been in love.
(他當時已經三十五歲了,而這才是他第一次談戀愛。)

◎ 過去完成式與時間連接詞
我們通常使用時間連接詞 (time conjunctions) 來說明事物或動作發生的先後順序,在此情況下,過去完成式可保留或者簡化成過去式。譬如:

After he (had) finished his exams he went to Paris for a month.
(考試完後,他去了巴黎一個月。) – after 已經明確表示行為的先後順序

I went shopping after I (had) cleaned up the kitchen.
(我打掃(完)廚房之後便去逛街購物。) – after 已經明確表示行為的先後順序

As soon as I (had) put the phone down it rang again.
(我當時才剛放下電話,它隨即又響起。)

When I arrived at the restaurant the next morning, she had just completed a letter to her son, who was away at college.
(當我第二天早上到餐廳去時,她剛寫好準備寄給外地讀大學兒子的一封信。) – 用過去完成式說明到達時早已經寫好信

*過去完成式可標明率先發生的行為或動作,其不受隨後發生事物的影響。然而,用過去式表達連續動作時,表示第一個動作導致 (lead to) 其後的動作,彼此之間有所謂的因果關係 (a cause-and-effect link)。

When I had opened the windows I sat down and had a cup of tea.
(我把窗戶都打開之後,我坐下來喝了杯茶。)
這句話可改寫成:After I opened the windows, I sat down and had a cup of tea.
// (比較)
When I opened the window, the cat jumped out.
(我一打開窗戶,貓就跳了出去。) – More natural than “When I had opened the window, the cat jumped out”.

When I had written my letters I did some gardening.
(我寫完信之後,便去種植花草。)
// (比較)
When I wrote to her she came at once.
(我寫信給她,她隨即就前來。)

When he closed the door, I began to scream. (他關門時我開始尖叫。)
When he had closed the door, I began to scream. (他關好門時我開始尖叫。)

◎ 表達過去「未完成的願望」或「不再有的想法」
使用用過去完成式時,句子或上下文中通常有表明過去時態的動詞來表示作者是說明以前的事物。

She had expected to be the first to arrive, but she turned out to be the last.
(她當時原本想最先到的,結果卻是最後一個到的。)

I had hoped that we would be able to leave tomorrow, but it’s beginning to look difficult.
(我原本希望明天就可以離開的,可是目前看起來似乎很難。) – 句子時態從過去完成式直接跳躍到現在進行式

“In your Camery, what kind of gas mileage do you get?”
(你那輛Camery 一公升能跑多少公里?)
“Not as good as I had hoped.”
(跑的沒我原來想的那麼多。)

He had intended to make a cake, but he ran out of time.
(他原本想要做個蛋糕的,可是他當時時間不夠用。)

** originally (原本) 這個單字可以伴隨過去完成式來使用
字典的解釋: originally = used to describe the situation that existed at the beginning of a particular period or activity, especially before sth was changed.

Originally, we had intended to to go Scotland, but we never got further than Edinburgh.
(我們原先計畫要去蘇格蘭,但最後我們最遠只到愛丁堡。)

// 不過,如果拉長時間軸來看,originally 銜接的句子用過去式也可說得通
The book was originally conceived as an autobiography, but it became a novel.
(這本書最初的構想是一本自傳,後來卻寫成一本小說。)

The school was originally very small.
(這間學校原本很小。)

** if, wish, would rather 之後接過去完成式,表示講述的事情過去並未發生。
If I had gone to university, I would have studied medicine.
(如果我上過大學,我可能會讀醫學院。)
//Now she wishes she had gone to university.

I wish you had told me the truth.
(我希望你早就告訴我實情。)

I’d rather she had asked me before borrowing the car.
(我寧願她借車前先講一聲。)

(下面是一段影評的節錄)
I really don’t think it’s necessary to go into all the different places this movie goes wrong – the script and actor’s inability to stand out make this film hard to watch – and then it simply falls apart with plot holes that are glaringly obvious and dialogue that simply doesn’t work 99% of the time. I had hoped for a fun, action-filled movie with a bit of comedic relief from Rock, but I was instead greeted with almost 2 hours of boring and unimaginative junk.
(說明)
評論員先以現在式說明對影片的看法 (描述實情),然後以過去完成式表達看片前的期待 (非事實的過去),以過去式表達看片後的失望 (已發生的過去事實)

I had believed in reincarnation. But the Bible disillusioned me.
(我以前曾經相信過輪迴,但聖經卻讓我瞭解那根本是鬼話。)

I had hoped to attend your birthday party, but my son was to compete in his school’s track race on that day.
(我(當時)原本要參加你的生日聚會的,但我兒子那天卻要參加學校的田徑比賽。)

(下面從網路擷取的一段回憶錄)
source: Catholic Digest http://www.catholicdigest.com/article/its-never-too-late-for-love/2
Boys became a scarce commodity in high school because they went off to war as soon as they graduated. I remember that day in 1943 when two cousins of mine came to visit us and persuaded me to ride back on the bus to Birmingham to visit them for a week. This was an unusual chance for me, so I went. When I came home, I learned that you had already gone into the Navy. You had come to see me but I was not there. Since we had no telephone, there was no way to call me, and I had thought you were not leaving until the next week. (我當時以為你下一個禮拜才會離開)





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