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英文「過去完成式」的使用時機 (2)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: November 19, 2009 – 10:51 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究單項細節。

◎ 用於過去的時間子句中
用過去完成式來強調過去某件事情的完成。

They started this wholesale business in February, and by the end of September they had already been firmly in the black.
(他們二月才成立這個批發事業,到了九月就已經有大幅的盈餘。)

A Swiss spokesman said the submarine had sent quite a few warnings to the cruiser prior to launching the three torpedoes that sank it.
(瑞士海軍發言人指出,該潛艦發射三枚魚雷擊沉巡洋艦之前,已經向該巡洋艦發出數次警告。)

We were not allowed to play outside or watch TV until we had cleaned up the mess.
(直到我們整理乾淨之後,我們才能出去玩或者看電視。)

He asked me to read the book to him. But I had hardly (scarcely/barely) come to page two when he fell asleep.
(他那時要我念這本書給他聽。可是我還沒唸到第二頁,他就睡著了。) 

No sooner had the police barricaded the street than the fight was on and everything from that point became sheer pandemonium.
(警方才剛設起路障,爭鬥便開始,隨後便陷入天下大亂。)
(說明)
No sooner … than = immediately when or after (一…就)
這種句型用於描述過去發生的事情,因此下筆時要定位成過去時態。而且,由結構上判斷,先提及的事件要先完成,因此用「過去完成式」,稍後提及的事情則使用「過去式」,表示描述的事情已經過去
(這種結構類似於表示兩個過去事件的發生先後順序)。
He had no sooner arrived than he was asked to leave again.
= No sooner had he arrived than he was asked to leave again. (倒裝句型)
(他當時才剛到就被支走。)

 

◎ 過去未完成式的誤用
基本觀念:必須回溯比過去更早的過去事件時才能使用「過去完成式」。如果要單純說明過去事件,應該用「過去式」 (如有明確的時間) 或「現在完成式」 (如沒有明確的時間)。

(不妥的範例)
I had thought you were an American. You speak English so well.- 時態跳躍太快
(修改)
You speak English very well. I thought you were an American.
(你英文說得這麼好,我還以為你是美國人。)
I had thought you were an American until Heather told me you were not.
(你當時一直以為你是美國人,直到後來 Heather 告訴我你不是美國人。)

(範例2)
I left some manuscripts with you for typesetting last week. Are they ready yet?
(我上禮拜給你們一些手稿請你們排版。請問排好了嗎?) – 不可用過去完成式
I have left some manuscripts with you for typesetting. Are they ready yet?
(我有給你們一些手稿請你們排版。請問排好了嗎?) – 不可用過去完成式

(範例3)
General Cary, who commanded a parachute regiment for many years, is now living in retirement. (General Cary, who had commanded a parachute regiment)
(克利將軍曾經多年帶領傘兵部隊,目前正過著退休生活。)

(範例4)
I left some photos to be developed. Are they ready yet?
(I had left some photos to be developed)
(我有送洗一些相片,請問已經好了嗎?)

I explained to the guard that I had forgotten to bring my ID with me.
(我當時向警衛解釋我忘了帶身分證。)
(說明)
過去完成式描述的事件,其發生時間早於過去式講述的事件。

I thought I had sent the letter a week before.
(我以為我早在一個禮拜之前就已經寄出這封信了。)
(說明)
說明過去發生的事情,要用 “before / earlier”,不可用 “ago”。

 

◎ 過去完成式與過去式的典型用法
小說、故事、自傳、回憶錄、報導或者敘述目擊事件都要用到過去式與過去完成式。

Rich Dad, Poor Dad

There is a Need.
Does school prepare children for the real world? “Study hard and get good grades and you will find a high-paying job with great benefits,” my parents used to say. Their goal in life was to provide a college education for my older sister and me, so that we would have the greatest chance for success in life. When I finally earned my diploma in 1976 – graduating with honors, and near the top of my class, in accounting from Florida State University – my parents had realized their goal. It was the crowning achievement of their lives. In accordance with the “Master Plan,” I was hired by a “Big 8” accounting firm, and I looked forward to a long career and retirement at an early age.

《富爸爸,窮爸爸》序言
我們還有所欠缺。
學校教育真的讓孩子準備好去應付現實世界了嗎?我父母以前常對我說:「用功讀書,拿個好成績,就能夠找到高薪、待遇又好的工作。」他們的生活目標就是供我和姊姊上大學,讓我們有最好的機會在社會上出人頭地。1976 年時,我以幾近名列前矛的優異成績從佛羅里達州立大學會計系畢業。當時,我父母終於實踐了目標,那是他們生命中最感驕傲的時刻。根據「大師計畫」,我受聘於「八大」會計公司的其中一家,隨即期待著穩定的職業生涯,最終在尚屬年輕時便能從職場退休養老。

(冠詞說明) school (u) = process of being educated in a school
I hate school. // old enough to go to school.

 

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