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英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 8, 2009 – 10:35 am

閱讀下面英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。英文「現在簡單式」使用時機的其他部分在『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (2)』、『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (3)』與『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (4)』。

1.一般用法:

a. 表示恆久不變的真理或一般事實

Copper is heavier than iron.
(鋼比鐵重。) – 恆久不變的真理

Jupiter is the largest planet within the solar system. It is two and a half times as massive as all of the other planets in our solar system combined.
(木星是太陽系最大的行星,其質量為太陽系其他所有行星總和質量的兩倍半。) – 恆久不變的真理

The battery light displays charge status:
Off: The battery is fully charged or not installed.
(電池指示燈顯示充電狀態 //指示燈不亮:電池已經充飽或者並未裝上。)
–  (技術手冊) 一般事實

What do frogs eat?
(青蛙吃什麼 ?) – 詢問事實

We get five days’ Christmas holiday this year.
(今年的耶誕節連續放五天。)  – 一般事實

b. 說明狀態或能力

My parents live near Denver.
(我的雙親住在丹佛附近。) – 狀態

I work from nine to five.
(我的工作朝九晚五。) – 狀態
// (比較) He is working in Saudi Arabia at the moment. (他目前在沙烏地阿拉伯工作。)
– 現在進行式給人『變動』的印象,因此用於說明『臨時或者短暫的』職業。

I have a bad memory for names. (我不太會記人名。) – 能力

He plays the piano.  (他會彈鋼琴。) – 能力

Do you speak Chinese? (你會說中文嗎?) – 詢問能力
// (比較) They can speak French. (他們會說法語。)

I don’t drink. (我不會喝酒) – 能力
//(比較) I’m not drinking tonight. (我今晚不想喝酒)
– 這句話的意思是:我可能不會喝酒,也可能會喝酒,但我待會不想喝酒。

A: When does the lease expire? (租約何時期滿?)
B: The lease has four years left to run. (租約還有四年才到期。)
– 雖然是『日後』才到期,因為說明狀態,所以可用現在簡單式。

c.  表示目前習慣與例行事項
這是常見情況,因此閱讀文章時最常遇到現在簡單式。

John smokes. (約翰會抽菸 / 約翰是個有抽菸習慣的人。)
John never smokes. (約翰從不抽菸。)
John smokes every day. (約翰每天抽菸。)

Don’t believe what he says.
(不要相信他講的話。) – 說這句話表示你指的這個人不可信 (not to be trusted)。
(比較) Don’t believe what he said. (他先前講什麼都不要相信。)

My husband usually takes the kids to the nursery school before he goes to work.
(我先生通常先送小孩上幼稚園,然後再去上班。) – 例行事項

How often do you go to the U.S.? – I go there twice a year.
(你多常去美國?我一年去兩次。)

He always shouts at employees. (他總是對員工大吼小叫。)

A married woman usually bears her husband’s surname.
(女子出嫁後通常隨夫姓。)

The cat scratches. (這隻貓愛用爪子亂抓。)

d. 在談話中以狀態動詞或感覺動詞表達意見或看法

I wish I were a millionaire.
(但願我是個百萬富翁。)

I fear that the recent financial market scandal is only the tip of the iceberg.
(恐怕最近的金融市場醜聞不過是冰山一角而已。)

I feel we may be too late.
(恐怕我們太遲了。)

I believe it to have been a mistake.
(我認為這一直就是錯的。)

We hope that the re-launched site provides a stimulating and dynamic online environment.
(我們希望重新啟用的網站能夠提供有趣且生動的線上環境。)

我們通常以現在式來表達說話時剛完成的動作,常見的情況如下:
2.「立即的」現在簡單式用法:

a. 動作說明、問路指導或操作示範

OK, let’s go over it again. You wait outside the office building until the manager arrives. Then you radio Louis, who’s waiting round the corner, and he drives round to the front entrance. You and Louis grab the manager…
(Practical English Usage by Michael Swan)
(OK,我們再跑一遍。你在辦公室大樓外頭等著,經理一到,你就用對講機通知在街角等候的路易斯,然後他就把車開到前門,你和路易斯就一把抓住經理…。) – 動作說明

“Hi, I heard there’s a Chinese restaurant around here. Do you know how to get there from here?”
(我聽說這附近有中國餐廳,可以告訴我如何去嗎?)
” Yeah, Chinatown is pretty close to here. Just go to the corner and then take a right. You have to walkt two blocks… ”
(嗯,中國城離這裡不遠。走到轉角處之後右轉,你得再經過兩條街…。) – 問路說明

Using the TouchPad
To move the pointer, slide your finger across the TouchPad surface in the direction you want the pointer to go.
(Compaq Notebook User’s Guide)
(使用觸控板 //如要移動滑鼠,在觸控板表面朝著你要滑鼠移動的方向滑動手指。) – 操作示範

b. 電視或收音機播報運動比賽

The Red Sox wins. (波士頓紅襪隊贏了。)
//(比較) The Red Sox is wining the AL East. (波士頓紅襪隊即將贏得美聯東區冠軍。)

“The ball is going, going, going, high into the center field stands… and it is a home run!”
(球一直飛、一直飛、一直飛,飛到了中央看台。這是一隻全壘打!)
(說明) 『簡單式』說明剛完成的動作或者報導時的現況,而『 現在進行式』則說明時間較長的動作,或者接下來即將發生的事情。

“Citation taking the lead… with Faraway in second place… and the others already are trailing so far that you’re glad the distance is a mile and a half! And Citation is pulling away… he’ll have to collapse to lose this race. It is Citation going to win the Belmont Stakes.”
(Citation 保持領先,Faraway 處在第二位置,他其馬匹則被拋在後頭苦苦追趕,差了有一哩半!Citation 逐漸拉開距離,除非它摔倒,否則它贏定了比賽。Citation 即將贏得貝蒙錦標。)
(說明) 『簡單式』說明剛完成的動作或者報導時的現況,而『 現在進行式』則說明時間較長的動作,或者接下來即將發生的事情。

Oxford are drawing slightly ahead of Cambridge now; they’re rowing with a beautiful rhythm; Cambridge are looking a little disorganized…
(牛津隊目前稍稍領先劍橋隊,他們正以穩健的節奏持續向前划,劍橋隊看起來有點慌了手腳…。)

c. 表達命令、請求或建議

Why don’t you take a day off tomorrow?
(你明天何不請個假?你明天乾脆請假吧) – 建議

Get out of here! (滾開!) – 命令

Give me a call when you arrive in Taipei.
(到達台北之後,給我打個電話。) – 請求
//when 後面的附屬子句以現在式說明未來的情況,請參考有關附屬子句的說明。

d. here comes… 與 there goes… 的特殊句型

Here comes your wife. (你老婆來了。)

There goes our bus – we’ll have to wait for the next one.
(巴士跑掉了,我們得等下一班了。)

e. 用文字、數字或圖片表達訊息

What does this word say?
(這個詞是什麼意思?)

It says in the paper that petrol’s going up again.
(報上說油價又要漲了。)
//這句話可以改成過去式:It said in the paper that petrol was going up again.

The label says this sauce is made from tomatoes and garlic.
(標籤上寫著這種調味醬是用番茄和大蒜製成的。)

Does it say in the instruction how much you should use?
(說明書上有沒有指定該用多少?)

f. 其他: 說完動作立即發生 / 發誓或者許下諾言

“I now declare Hong Kong Disneyland officially open,” said Disney’s Chief Executive Michael Eisner.
美國迪士尼公司執行長 Michael Eisner 說:「我現在宣布,香港迪士尼樂園正式開幕。」

We wish you a happy new year.
(我們祝你新年快樂。)
//(Here’s) wishing you all the best in your new job. (固定說法)

With great sadness I announce that, effective immediately, I will be leaving RIOY to pursue other interests.
(雖然感到極為難過,我在此宣佈即日起離開 RIOY 團隊去追尋其他夢想。)

I enclose (herewith) a check for $249.
(茲附上249 美金支票一張。)
(說明)
下列是書信中某些固定的說法,以現在式表達時較為正式。
We write to advise you… / We are writing to advise you (不正式)
I enclose my check for $200. / I am enclosing my check for $200. (不正式)
I look forward to hearing from you. / I’m looking forward to hearing from you. (不正式)

I promise never to gamble again.
(我保證絕對不再賭博。)
(I am promsing…)

I sware that I will tell the truth.
(我發誓絕對會說出實情。)
(I am swearing that…)

We gree.
(我們同意。)
(We are agreeing.)

He denies the charge.
(他否認這項指控。)
(He is denying…)

Do you deny that this is your writing?
(你不承認這是你的筆跡嗎?)
(Are you denying that…)

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8 Responses »

  1. d.例句:I wish I were a millionaire. 可以寫成:I wish I am a millionaire.

  2. 英文字 ‘wish’ 是用於『非事實』的假設,這些假設情況是說話者認為不可能發生的事情。這些事情可以是指「過去、現在或未來」。舉例如下:

    (1) 過去 (採用過去完成式)

    I wish I had been alive in the twenties.
    (我希望活在 20 世紀) – 可惜我沒有

    (2) 現在 (採用過去式)

    I wish I could fly.
    (我希望能夠飛翔) – 可惜我不能飛翔

    (3) 未來 (could + 動詞原形)

    I wish I could have my own house.
    (我希望我能擁有自己的房子) – 我知道自己幾乎不可能置產,想想而已

    因此,”I wish I am a millionaire.” 這句話是不對的。如果要表示真正的希望,應該用 “hope”。

    I hope I will be a millionaire soon.
    I hope you will be happy.
    I hope you (will) like it. (有時 will 可以省略)
    I hope you’re coming to the party.

    希望我的解釋能有所幫助。

  3. 想請教:
    yet 和 without的用法

  4. Thanks for making a post here. But I have no idea what you really want me to help you with. You subject is too broad to be covered. You may want to look up these two words in the dictionary before asking me questions. Have a nice day.

  5. 但我有時會寫 “Wish you a Merry Christian and Happy New Year”,
    即我是否應用 “Hope you a Merry Christian and Happy New Year” ????

  6. 例句 : I wish I were a millionaire. 為可不是:I wish I was a millionaire.

    在這裡為何要用 “were” 而不用 “was” ????

  7. “Hope you a Merry Christian and Happy New Year” 這是錯誤用法,因為 hope 不能接雙受詞 ( you + a merry Chrsitmas)。 hope 的句型要使用 ” hope that + 子句” 字典例句很多,可以查查用法。

  8. were 是標準且正確的用法,版主會使用這種寫法,但是現代英語中,was 已經逐漸被人接受,因為許多老美也覺得幹麻這麼麻煩, 假設語氣只要使用 ‘過去式’ 便可。下面是老美的解釋:

    http://www.englishforums.com/English/IWishIWasWereThere/bzvrw/post.htm

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