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英文「現在完成進行式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: November 29, 2009 – 4:08 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

◎ 從過去持續到現在的動作
– situations which started in the past and are still going on
現在完成進行式 – 強調過程從未間斷
現在完成式 – 強調累計結果

I have been living in Taipei for 30 years. (我三十年來一直都住在台北。)
I have lived in Taipei for 30 years. (我已經在台北住了三十年。)

Astronomers believe that the universe has been expanding ever since the beginning of time.
(天文學家認為,宇宙從太初以來就不斷膨脹。)
(說明)
英文時態運用要視情況調整,起參照下面幾個類似的例句,句中都有時態的交替:
* He proposed that the universe has been expanding since the Big Bang and will continue to expand at an accelerating rate.
* They concern what may become a paradigm on our understanding of the universe. It seems the universe has been expanding and “recently” it started to accelerate! 

She has been working for IBM since she graduated from college.
(她打從大學畢業之後就一直在 IBM 工作。) – 強調無間斷
She has worked for IBM since she graduated from college.
(她從大學畢業後就在 IBM 工作。) – 強調時間很長

It’s been raining steadily since last Saturday.
(從上禮拜六雨就一直下不停。)
It has rained steadily since last Saturday.
(從上禮拜六雨就下不停。)

 

◎ 動作或情況剛剛結束,但其影響還持續到現在
– situations which have just stopped and have present results

“You look very tired.” “I’ve been writing reports all night.”
(你看起來很疲憊。/ 是的,我整晚都在寫報告。) – 報告已經寫完

“You look hot.” “I’ve been running.”
(你看起來好像很熱。/是啊,我剛跑完步 (我剛剛一直在跑步) 。)
(說明)
這種用法是華人最不會使用的,請網友務必熟記。
如果指明特定的時間點,就不可以使用現在完成進行式,要用過去的時態(過去式或者過去進行式),這是因為英文的時態觀念中,「現在」與「過去」是涇渭分明的。
“You look tired.” “Yes. I was cycling non-stop until five o’clock.” ( I’ve been cycling non-stop until five o’clock.)
(你看起來很累。/ 是的,我騎腳踏車一直騎到五點。)

“He has just been speaking.”
(他剛才一直在說話。)

“Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long?”
(抱歉,我來遲了。你等了很久了嗎?)

“Man, that sauce of bibimbap really didn’t agree with me.”
“Yeah, me too. I’ve got the runs as well. I’ve been running to the bathroom every few minutes or so.”
(我因為吃拌飯裡的辣椒醬吃壞肚子了。)
(我也是啊,都拉肚子了。我每幾分鐘就要跑廁所。)
//網友看到了嗎?兩句對話就出現三種時態,英文時態的掌握非常重要。

 

◎ 重複的行動
現在完成進行式可表示經常重複的動作或行為,說明這些行為「不斷發生」。

The insurance salesman has been calling on John every day for the past week.
(過去一個禮拜,這位保險業務員天天都來拜訪約翰。)

I have been typing letters all morning.
(我整個早上都在打信。)

“I’ve been meaning to call you?” (我一直想打電話給你。)
“Really? I was thinking the same as you.” (真的嗎?我也正想給你打個電話。)

“Good thing I brought food. There is nothing in the house.” (幸好我帶了食物,家裡什麼也沒有。)                  
“I’ve been meaning to go shopping.” (我有要去買東西。/ 我一直都有想去採買食物。)

I have been hearing all about his affair.
(我一直都聽到他外遇的花邊新聞。)
I have heard a lot about his affair.
(我已經聽過不少他外遇的花邊傳聞了。)

I’ve been playing a lot of tennis recently. (我最近常打網球。)
I’ve played tennis three times this week. (我這禮拜打了三次網球。)

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