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英文「現在完成進行式」的使用時機 (2)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: November 30, 2009 – 4:11 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

◎ 用於推論或質疑

以下例句出自《實用大學英文寫作會話文法(上)》(顏斯華先生著)

“You look frightened. And you are out of breath, too. Have you been running for your life?”
(你好像嚇壞了,而且還氣喘如牛,你剛剛在逃命啊?)

“Look at his smirk. He must have been eavesdropping on our conversation.”
(你看他的奸笑,他剛剛一定在偷聽我們的談話。)

“What’s this? Hrh… Disgusting! Have you been picking your nose again? It’s not nice to pick your nose.”
(這是什麼?真噁心,你剛剛又在挖鼻孔了是不是?挖鼻孔很不雅觀的。)

 

◎ 現在完成進行式與現在式的差異
現在式:單純說明過去持續到現在的動作或情況
現在完成進行式:a. (過去的) 動作或情況剛剛完成,可能會有變動。b. 強調持續的時間。

I have violin lessons every two weeks.
(我每兩個星期會去上小提琴課。)
I’ve been having violin lessons every two weeks, but I think I’ll make it every week from now on.
(我每兩個星期會上一次小提琴課,但我小從現在起每個禮拜上一次。)

“Who is she talking to?”
(她正在跟誰說話?)
“Sorry, I’m late, darling.” “That’s all right. I’ve been talking to this nice boy.”
(親愛的,抱歉我來晚了。/ 沒關係,我一直都在跟這位可愛的小男孩聊天。)

“It’s raining again.”
(又下雨了。)
It’s been raining since Christmas. 
(從聖誕節以來,雨就下個不停。)

“Are you learning English?”
(你在學英語嗎?)
“How long have you been learning English?”
(你英語學多久了?)

“I hear you’re working at IBM.” / “I heard you work at IBM.”
(我聽說你在 IBM 上班。)
“Yes, I’ve been working there for about three months.”
(沒錯,我已經做了大約三個月了。) 

 

◎ 現在完成進行式與現在完成簡單式的差異
非持續性動詞
現在完成進行式:動作還在持續。
現在完成簡單式:動作已經完成。

**
Father has fixed the plumbing. (爸爸已經修好水管了。)
Father has been fixing the plumbing. (爸爸到現在還在修理水管。)

Sorry about the mess – I’ve been painting the house.
(對不起,弄得亂七八糟,我在粉刷房子。)
I’ve painted two rooms since lunchtime.
(吃完午餐之後,我已經粉刷完兩個房間。)

 

**與 since… 和 for… 等時間副詞連用
表示「持續至今」的意思,肯定句通常用現在完成進行式,否定句通常用現在完成式。 

She has been selling insurance since she graduated from college.
(她大學畢業後一直都在賣保險。) – 肯定句
She has been selling insurance for three years.
(她三年來一直都在賣保險。) – 肯定句
Dozier has been a CBS News correspondent reporting from Iraq for the past three years.
(Dozier 過去三年一直擔任 CBS 駐伊拉克的特派記者。)

She has not sold a single insurance policy ever since she joined us.
(她打從加入我們公司之後,連一張保單都沒賣出去。) – 否定句
She has not sold a single insurance policy for a year.
(她一年來連一張保單都沒賣出去。) – 否定句

She has already sold three policies since she joined us.
(她打從加入我們公司之後,已經賣出三張保單了。) -「累計」用法,表示完成。

For (= During) the past three years, a half-dozen handsome new books of poetry have been sent into the world annually by a new Seattle publisher.
(過去三年,一家西雅圖的新出版商每年都出版六本精美的詩集。) -「累計」用法,表示完成。

I have been typing since 8 A.M. (I have typed…)
(我從早上八點就一直打字。)  – 用現在完成進行式來表示持續。
I have typed 20 letters since 8 A.M. (I have been typing …)
(我從早上八點到現在,已經打了20 封信。) – 「累計」用法,表示完成。
(錯誤的範例) – 取材自仿間的某本聯考作文範例書籍
Since then, I have taken exercise every morning, and regularly play badminton with my parents on Sundays.
(修正後的句子)
I have been taking exercise regularly since then, including playing badminton with my parents every Sunday.

 

**
持續性動詞
eg. expect, learn (學習), lie (躺), hope, live, look, rain, sleep, sit, snow, stand, stay, study, wait, want, work
持續動詞的簡單式強調「累計」成果。

1) 進行式較強調過程無間斷,簡單式則強調「累計」成果。
He has been sleeping for 12 hours.
(他已經睡了 12 個小時。)- 強調他一直沒醒過
he has slept for 12 hours.
(他已經睡了 12 個小時。)  – 強調睡眠的總時間

Who’s been sleeping in my bed?
(到底是誰睡我的床?) – 故意強調時間,可用來表示不悅
I think she’s slept enough. I’ll wake her up.
(她睡得夠久了,我去叫醒她。)

 

2) 加入適當的時間副詞或受詞,以便讓句子產生意義
He has been sleeping. (姑且可翻成:他一直在睡。)
He has slept. (!?意義不清楚)
He has fallen asleep. (他已經睡著了。)
He is sleeping. (他正在睡覺。)
He has gone to sleep. (他已經去睡覺了。)
He has slept well. / He has not slept well. (他睡得很好。/他睡得不好。)
Did you have a good night’s sleep? (你昨晚睡得好嗎?)

 

**
兼具持續性與非持續性的動詞
I have learned to write English.
(我已經學會英文寫作。)

I have been learning to write English.
(我 (從過去某個時間到現在) 一直在學習英文寫作。)

The Argentine (Argentinean) people have been learning to live with white terror (ever since the military coup took place.)  
((自從軍事政變之後),阿根廷人民就一直在學習如何在白色恐怖下過生活。)

With their uniquely atrocious despotism in history, the Chinese have long learned to live with white terror.
(中國人歷來在特殊的橫暴君主專制統治之下,早已學會如何在白色恐怖下過生活。)

 

**
通常不用在現在進行式的動詞

We have been close friends since 1980.
(我們從1980年以來就一直是好朋友。)

She’s had a cold since Monday. (她禮拜一感冒,到現在都還沒好。)

I’ve only known her for two days. (我不過才認識她兩天。)

(例外)
She is certain that her husband has been seeing a woman.
(她很確定她的丈夫有在跟另一名女子約會。)

She has been having her house painted for the last week.
(她這一周都在雇工粉刷房子。)

I’ve been thinking over this matter for quite a long time.
(這件事情我已經想了很久。)

 

**
hear, need, want, die (渴望) 經常使用現在完成進行式:
I’ve been hearing a lot about this scandal.
(關於這項醜聞,我早已耳聞諸多揣測了。)

Thank you very much for the aid. We’ve been needing it desperately.
(感激不盡,我們早已需要您從旁協助。) –猶如大旱之望雲霓

Thank you very much for the welding kit you sent me. I’ve been wanting one for a long time.
(謝謝你寄給我焊接工具組,我早就想要擁有一套了。)

Have you heard about Cape No.7? I’ve been dying to see it.
(你聽過「海角七號」嗎? 我老早就想去看了。)

 

© 英語學習網站《天地無用》- 狂飆英語的樂園





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