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英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 10, 2009 – 4:08 am

版主講解英文文法時,時常必須向學生指出某些動詞為何不能用於某種時態,原因乃是動詞本身有固定的特質,學習時必須先以邏輯理解,日後方能活用。茲舉兩例稍加說明:

(舉例 1)
kill 屬於『非持續狀態的動詞』

Up to the present, some two hundred people have been killed in the conflict.
(截至目前為止,大約已經有兩百人在這場衝突中喪生) – 用完成式是「強調累計結果」

John was killed last week.
(約翰上禮拜遭到殺害) – 用過去式「說明結果」

John has been killed since 1985.
(約翰從 1985 年被殺到現在?!神經病才會寫這種句子,你還想凌遲約翰多久呢?千刀斬嗎?)

(舉例 2)
 establish 屬於『瞬間動詞』

The company has been established since 1985. (crazy nuts!)
(這家公司從 1985 年起就「設立迄今」?!)

The company has been established for 50 years. (crazy nuts!)
(這家公司設立已有 50 年?! – 50年一直設立?!)

上面這兩句話都有語病,只能改寫如下:
The company has been in business for 50 years (since 1985).

現在各位應該對英文動詞的本質有些概念了,以下是版主整理的資料,請參考。

動詞依據本質可分成下列四種:
 
1. Activity (純粹的行為或動作) 
(解釋) 動作持續一段時間,但沒有明確的結束時間點。
(例子) run, pay attention to, scan, look, watch, think about, pull, consider   

2. Accomplishment (經過一段時間達成某事)
(解釋) 動作持續一段時間,但有明確的結束時間點。
(例子) run a mile, draw a circle, read a book, play a game of chess, grow up, watch the passage of Venus across the sun, paint a picture, die   

3. Achievement (在某個時間點完成某事)
(解釋) 動作並未持續一段時間,但有明確的發生時刻 。
(例子) die, reach the summit, win a race, know, understand, see, get married, lose, realize, recognize, kick the bucket
   
4. State (狀態)
(解釋) 狀態並未隨時間而變化,並且持續好一段時間 。 
(例子) be X, believe, know, have, see, want, possess, love, dominate  

 





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