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「現在假設式」- 假設語氣講解 (第一篇)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: February 16, 2010 – 7:36 am

英語有一種稱為「假設式」(subjunctive mood) 的動詞形式,專門用來說明「虛擬想法」,而非可能發生的「事件或事實」,說明實際事件或動作的動詞形式稱為「陳述式」(indicative mood)。

假設式用來表示各種語氣或心情:希望、情感、判斷、想法、命令、需求,以及與事實相反的論點。

‘Wikipedia’ 列出下面的表格,網友可從中比較「假設」(subjunctive) 動詞形式與「陳述」(indicative) 動詞形式的差別。
來源:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subjunctive_mood

subjunctive-table5

圖表中粗體部分顯示「假設」(subjunctive) 動詞與「陳述」(indicative) 動詞的差別。

使用假設式時,動詞形態與真正的時態無關,網友務必將這種兩情況區隔開來,‘Wikipedia’ 舉出下面幾個實際例子,請參考
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subjunctive_mood

** I asked it be done yesterday. (我昨天要求必須將事情完成。)
“be done” (現在假設式 /a present subjunctive) 跟現在式一點關係都沒有

** If that were true, I would know it. (如果那是真的,我會知道的。)
“were” (過去假設式 / a past subjunctive) 跟過去式一點關係也沒有

** It is high time we bought a new car. (我們應該買一部新車了。)
“bought” 為 “buy” 的過去式,但本句實際上是講未來的事情,車子還沒有買。

總而言之,假設式分成下列四種:

a. 「現在假設式」(擬請語氣) –>詳細解說 (本篇)

b. 「現在假設式」(條件句一型) –>詳細解說 (進入主題)

c. 「過去假設式」(條件句二型) –>詳細解說 (進入主題)

d. 「過去完成擬設式」(條件句三型) –>詳細解說 (進入主題)

livejournal

a.「現在假設式」(擬請語氣)
不論主詞為第幾人稱,動詞皆採用「原形」,be 動詞全部為 be。

translation 具有「命令、要求或建議」意義的動詞

這類動詞後接 that 子句,句中的動詞可用「現在擬設式」來表達「強烈的」要求或主張。這種句型過於正式,沒有把握的話最好不要隨便使用,建議使用其他的表示方法。美式英語中多用動詞原形,使用 “should” 被視為文謅謅或者英式用法。

相關動詞:ask (要求) / suggest (建議) / request (要求) / propose (提議) / recommend (建議) / insist (堅持) / demand (要求) / rule (裁決) / move (動議) / command (命令) / order (命令) / clamor (鼓譟)

We ask that the construction of this nuclear power plant (should) be postponed indefinitely.
(我們要求無限期延後興建本核能電廠。)
// We would ask to postpone the construction of this nuclear power plant indefinitely. (本句較為客氣)
// We would ask the community to prepare for the next two rounds of litigation involving Brain.

I wrote suggesting he should come for the weekend.
(我寫信請他來度週末。) -《牛津英漢雙解詞典》例句
// I suggest taking the children to the zoo. (我提議帶小孩去動物園。)
// It is our suggestion that you (should) discontinue this policy at once. (我們建議您立刻停止此一政策。)

Bejing requested that Tapei (should) extradite the hijackers immediately.
(北京要求台北立即引渡該批劫機犯。)
// We requested him to help. (我們要求他幫忙。)

The consulting team proposed/recommended that the company (should) diversify its investments.
(顧問小組建議,公司的投資應該多角化。)
// It is my recommendation that he (should) not be apponited (as) chairman. (我建議不應該指派他為主席。)

The protesters insisted that the legislature formally (should) remove Lee from her post.
(抗議人士要求立法院廢除李慶安的 (立法委員) 職務。)

Aflexia has reached a compromise with city officials demanding the building (should) be torn down.
(Aflexia 已經與要求拆除建築的市府官員達成協議。)
// It is the people’s demand that the finance minister (should) be replaced immediately. (人民要求立即撤換財政部長。)

The court ruled that the company (must) be dissolved.
(法院已經裁決該公司必須解散。)
// It was the court’s ruling that the company (should) be dissolved.
(法院的裁決是該公司必須解散。)

I move that this meeting (should) be adjourned.
(我提議休會。)
// Mr Chairman, I move that the matter be discussed after lunch. (主席先生,我提議此事午飯後再行討論。)

The tribunal has commanded that all copies of the book (must) be destroyed.
(法庭命令,必須將這本書的所有印本都銷毀。) -《牛津英漢雙解詞典》例句
// The officer commanded his men to fire. (軍官命令士兵開火。)

The judge ordered the documents be turned over by Oct. 10th.
(法官命令,文件必須在十月十日以前移交。)
// We ordered him to leave immediately. (我們要求他立即離開。)

The crowd clamored that the suspect (should) be sentenced to death.
(群眾鼓譟,要求將嫌疑犯處以死刑。)
// The public are clamoring for a change of government. (群眾大聲疾呼要撤換政府。) -《牛津英漢雙解詞典》例句
// The baby clamored to be fed. (嬰兒餓得大聲哭叫。) -《牛津英漢雙解詞典》例句

translation It is +具有「主張」意義的動詞

這類形容詞後接 that 子句,句中的動詞可用「現在假設式」來表達「強烈或嚴肅」的主張。這種句型過於正式,沒有把握的話最好不要隨便使用。美式英語中多用動詞原形,使用 “should” 被視為文謅謅或者英式用法。

相關動詞:essential (必要的) / important (重要的) / imperative (迫切的) / necessary (必需的) / vital (至關重要的) / desirable (所欲的) / preferred (比較想要的) / fitting (恰當的)

It is important /vital that students (should) have unlimited access to the library’s scientific literature.
(讓學生可以自由使用圖書館的科學文獻,這點是必須的/重要的。)

You have been diagnosed with diabetes. It is imperative that you (should) have a thorough check-up at least once a year with a doctor experienced in treating diabetes.
(你已經被診斷出罹患糖尿病。你必須每年至少請專精糖尿病的醫生進行一次的徹底檢查。 )

It is essential that you (should) postphone the proposal to find a safe harbor away from the political storm.
(你最好延緩提議,以便躲開這場政治暴風圈。)

It is desirable that you (should) be there by 5 o’clock.
(你最好在五點前到達那裏。)

It is preferred that you (should) send back the samples claimed to be faulty.
(我們希望貴方能退還聲稱不良的樣品。)

It is fitting that he (should) resign.
(他辭職是恰當的。)

translation 其他情況 – 表示祈願的固定句型 (fixed phrase)

** Be that as it may = Even if that is the case; whether it is true or not; nevertheless (儘管如此/即便如此)
We English people, be that as it may, have among us the best nursing for love and the worst nursing for money that can be got in Europe.
– Charles Dickens, Household Words, no 429 (12 June), p. 602.
(不管如何,我們英國人的愛情訓練在歐洲首區一指,但金錢管理 (在歐洲) 卻敬陪末座。)

** God / Heaven forbid (that)…= expressing a wish that sth may no happen (祈求某件事情不要發生)
God /Heaven forbid that something should happen to her.
(老天保佑她不會發生任何事情。)
God /Heaven forbid that anything awful should have happened to her.
(老天保佑她不要發生任何事情。)

(說明) God / Heave forbid that 也可以用於陳述句。
If you are, God forbid, HIV positive, it means you have AIDS.
(你如果呈現 HIV陽性反應,嗯我希望這件事情不會發生,那就表示你得了愛滋病。)
//This structure is used to express a wish that sth may not happen. (表示希望某件事情不會發生) “God forbid” is said when someone is going to talk about a “if” situation. And the situation is a bad one for the listener. To not “brings bad luck” to the listener, the speaker would say “God forbid”. It does not mean the speaker is superstitious, rather, a showing of good manners to the listener.

** If need be = if necessary; should the necessity arise (若有必要的話)
If need be, we”ll rent a car.
(若有必要,我們會租一部車。)

We can suspend the membership of those who violate the rule, if need be.
(如有必要,我們可以暫時吊銷違反規範者的會員資格。)

** Perish the thought that… = may it never happen (口語的表達方式,希望某件事情永遠不要發生)
If his father came to live with us, perish the thought, I can’t imagine what strain that would put on our relationship.
(如果他老爸來跟我們同住,天啊可別發生這種事,我真不敢想像那會對我們的婚姻影響多大。) – 本句話為「非事實的假設」,附屬與主要子句的動詞都用過去式。
The neighbor’s children want to learn to play the trumpet, perish the thought!
(鄰居小孩想學吹小號,但願他們可別學!)

(這種句型也可用於直述句)
Perish the thought that we should succumb to the black-mailing of these fascist evil-doers.
(我們絕對不可因為這些法西斯惡徒的威脅恫赫而有屈服投降的念頭。)
Perish the thought that we should ever part.
(但願我們長相斯守。)

** as it were = in a way; so to speak; used to describe sb or sth in a way that is not quite exact (可以說是)
He became, as it were, a man without a country.
(他可以說是個喪失國家的人了。)

Wayne became our idol as it were, the man we all wanted to be.
(Wayne 可以說是我們的偶像,我們都想成為這樣的人。)

It is a mistake to believe that computers can “think”. They need detailed instructions from human beings in order to be able to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives, or “rule the world” by making decisions of their own.
(如果你認為電腦會「思考」,那你就大錯特錯了。電腦需要人詳細指導才能運作,可以說它們不可能獨立生活,或者能夠自行做出決定來「統治世界」。)  -《新觀念英語》的例句

** whether it be… = 不論是否是
As you’re chatting up the guy you’ve set your sights on, ask him what he did over the weekend. Then, casually suggest something similar – whether it be going out for wings or to the batting cages – for the following Friday.
(與你看中的男人聊天時,問他週末都在幹什麼,然後隨口邀他下禮拜去做類似的活動,不管是吃烤雞翅、還是到棒球練習場打球。)
source: http://www.cosmopolitan.com/sex-love/dating-advice/how-to-ask-a-guy-out

**May’ 的使用場合
May you live to a hundred.
(願你長命百歲。) –祈願

May God be with you.
(願上帝與你同在。) –祈願

(說明)
You may go. (你可以走了。) –這是命令句型,與假設形式無關

** Long live the king!
(皇上萬歲!)

** come what may = whatever happens; in spite of difficulties that may arise (不管發生什麼事情)
She promised to support him come what may.
(她承諾,不論發生何事,她都會支持他。)

空中補給 (Air Supply) 有首英文歌的歌名就叫做 “Come What May“,下面是歌詞節錄:

When she looks at me
I know the girl sees things
Nobody else can see

All of the secret fears inside
All of the craziness I hide
She looks into my soul
And reads me like nobody can

And she doesn’t judge the man
She just takes me as I am

CHORUS
Come what may, she believes
And that faith is something
I’ve never known before
Come what may, she loves me
And that love has helped me open a door
Making me love myself a little more

** albeit = a synthesis of all be it, i.e. although it be; although = 儘管;雖然 (古式用法)
I tried, albeit unsuccessfully, to contact her.
(我試圖聯絡她未果。)

** be that as it may = nevertheless; despite that (儘管)
I know he is old and frail; be that as it may, he is still a good teacher.
(我知道他年老體衰,但是他仍然是一位好老師。)

** suffice it to say that… = suggest that one could say more, but what one does say should be enough to show what one wants to mean (只須說…便足狗)
I won’t go into the details; suffice it to say that the whole thing was a disaster.
(我不想描述細節,整件事情就是個災難,說這些便夠了。)

** so be it = indicating that one accepts a fact (認可某種事實)
If he doesn’t want to get involved, then so be it.
(如果他不想參與,那就隨他吧!)

** 詩歌中常以「現在擬設式」來表達願望、條件或讓步
Love’s Old Sweet Song
Music by J.L. Molloy;
words by G. Clifton Bingham
http://www.james-joyce-music.com/song06_lyrics.html

Just a song a twilight, when the lights are low,
And the flick’ring shadows softly come and go,
Tho’ the heart be weary, sad the day and long,
Still to us at twilight comes Love’s old song,
comes Love’s old sweet song.
光線低沉,微朦中傳來一首歌,
陰影稍縱即逝且來去輕緩,
心靈雖然疲倦,日子雖然苦悶漫長,
微朦中依然傳來古老戀歌,
傳來古老甜蜜的戀歌。
(說明) Sad the day and long –> The day be sad and long 的倒裝句型; be 動詞省略

**題外話
If the accused be (is) convicted, he will have to serve ten years in prison.
(被告如果被定罪,就必須入獄服刑十年。)

Deserters, whatever be his reason, will be shot.
= Deserters, whatever his reason may be, will be shot.
(臨陣脫逃者,無論任何理由,一律槍斃處決。)

(說明)
使用 “be” 動詞的句子較為正式
translation 現在假設式的適當的使用時機
現在假設式的句型聽起十分嚴肅,在聊天或非正式場合應該避免使用,網友可選擇其他的表示方式,比如 “You may want to… / You might wish to…/ You may decide not to…”

The consulting team recommended the company to diversify its investments.
The crowd demanded to hang the rapist.
We would like you to send back the faulty scanner.

**
The umpire ordered that the player (should) be ousted.
(裁判命令該選手退場。)
(修正)
The umpired ordered the player be sent off (the field).
The player was sent off by the umpire. (直述句)

(說明)
oust 罷黜、取代、免職
send off a player 將某位選手判罰出場
umpire – 棒球、網球或排球的裁判 (有固定位子的裁判)
referee – 足球與籃球的裁判 (跟著球員滿場跑的裁判)

**
The principal ruled that no student (should) play truant.
(校長規定學生不准逃學。)
(修正)
The principal reiterated that students who are caught playing truant will be severely punished.
(校長重申,學生如果被逮到逃學,將會受到嚴厲處罰。)

**
It is vital you are here. (你在場可是至關緊要的。)
It is vital you be here. (你一定要來。)

**
It is important that he chairs the meeting.
(由他主持這場會議非常重要。) – 他可能正在主持會議

It is important that he chair the meeting.
(由他主持這場會議非常重要。) – 力陳應該由他來主持會議

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