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過去完成進行式
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: January 18, 2010 – 3:55 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

 

◎ 過去完成式的進行版本

At that time we had been living in Taipei for ten years.
(我們那時已經在台北住了十年了。) – situation which had continued up to the past moment that we are talking about

I had been waiting for more than one hour when the bus finally arrived.
(當巴士終於來的時候,我那時已經足足等了一個多小時。)

When I found Mary, I could see that she had been crying.  (Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, p 421 )
(我找到瑪莉時,我看得出來她剛哭過。) – action which stoped shortly before the past moment that we are talking about

 

◎ 表示過去的持續行為 (藉此表達「原因和理由」)

John was tired because he had been jogging.
(約翰當時在慢跑,因此覺得累。)
//(解說) 說這句話時強調「約翰當時一直慢跑,所以覺得累」,約翰有可能還在慢跑,也有可能剛剛結束慢跑。
// 如果要強調「約翰當時還在慢跑,所以覺得累」,可用以下的例句:
John was tired because he was jogging. 

Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
(Sam 那時變胖了,因為他都 (一直) 飲食過量。)

Kathy failed the final examine because she had not been attending class.
(Kathy 那時 (一直) 都沒上課,所以期末考不及格。)

I could smell that he had been smoking.
(我當時聞得出來他剛抽過菸。)

 

◎  過去完成式 vs 過去完成進行式

過去完成式:強調「完成」
過去完成進行式:強調「行為或動作的持續」

My leg was stiff because I had been standing still for a long time.  (Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, p 421 )
(我當時站著不動很久,腿都僵硬了。) – 強調「持續」
The lived in a castle which had stood on a hill for 200 years.
(他們居住在山丘上一座有兩百年歷史的城堡。) – 強調「永久」

I had been reading science fiction for years when I bought my first computer.
(我那時買第一部電腦時,已經讀了十年科幻小說。) – 強調「持續」
I had read all my magazines, and was beginning to get bored. (Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, p 421 )
(我當時已經讀完我的全部雜誌,開始感到無聊。) – 強調「完成」

 

◎  持續性動詞不可用於過去完成進行式
例如:know / belong

The car had been belonging to my elder brother for years before I bought it. (錯誤) 
The car had belonged to my elder brother for years before I bought it. (正確)

Jason hadn’t known Kathy for very long when he propsed to her.
(Jason hadn’t been knowing Kathy…) 

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