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英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (2)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 11, 2009 – 3:08 am

這是英文「現在簡單式」講解的第二部份,其他部份在『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (1)』、『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (3)』與『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (4)』。閱讀下面英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

3.「無關現在的」現在簡單式用法

◎ 傳達意思或感官認知方面的動詞
傳達意思的動詞: say, speak, tell
感官認知的動詞: hear, understand, learn

The fox news says an Apple event for late January has been confirmed. 
(福斯新聞說,蘋果已經確定一月底會舉辦產品發表會。)

We understand (= learn) that you are one of the leading vendors of trusted computing equipment in Taiwan.
(我們知道貴公司是台灣主要的可信計算設備供應商之ㄧ。)

I hear you are getting divorced.(泛泛的道聽塗說)
(比較) I heard you are getting divorced.(確實聽到某人說過)
(說明) 『過去式』明確表明事情的確發生,如果我們不那麼想明確表明時,可以用『現在式』表達。

 

報紙與新聞稿標題和照片說明
報紙與新聞稿報導的事件雖已發生,仍然習慣以『現在式』表達。然而,報導內容仍要使用『過去式』描述事件的經過。

China serves notice on its tennis future.
(中國的網球未來引人注目)
This week, two Chinese women made it to the final four of a grand slam tennis tournament for the first time, wowing audiences internationally and back home. Could this be the start of the rise of a tennis superpower?
(說明)
1. serves notice 這個詞組是玩弄文字,我們常用 “take no notice of …” 來說「不理會」,而且 “serve” 這個字可表示「網球的發球」。
2. made – 真正的『過去式』,用來講述事實
3. Could – 假設用法,與『過去式』無關 

 

Aflax Appoints New Broad Member
(阿法列已指派新的董事會成員)
Taiwan, Octorber 13, 2004 – Aflax (NASDAQ:AFLAX) today announced that Robert Kiyosaki, vice president and chief financial officer of Gateway Ltd., has been appointed to the Company’s Board of Directors effective immediately.
(2004 年 10 月,台北 ─ 阿法列 (NASDAQ:AFLAX) 今日宣佈,Gateway 副總裁與總財務長青崎已經被指派為該公司的董事會成員,命令即刻生效。 )
(說明)  報導內容仍要採用『過去式』來描述事件。

(比較)
Adobe to acquire Macromedia
(Adobe 即將併購 Macromedia)
On April 18, 2005 Adobe Systems Incorporated (Nasdaq: ADBE) announced a definitive agreement (合同書) to acquire Macromedia (Nasdaq: MACR) in an all-stock transaction (全股份交易).
(說明) 新聞稿的報導事件如果尚未發生,標題要以『不定詞』表達。

 

廣告詞與標語
A diamond is forever. (鑽石恆久遠,一顆永流傳) – De Beers廣告詞
Just do it. – Nike 廣告詞
Impossible is nothing. (沒有不可能) – Adidas 廣告詞
The Playoffs: Where Amazing happens – 美國 NBA 季後賽廣告詞

(比較)
i’m lovin’ it – 麥當勞廣告詞
(說明) 麥當勞在玩弄英文時態,love 屬於持續動詞,本不該與現在進行式搭配,但此處轉化為動作動詞,與 enjoy 的用法類似,詳見『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』。

 

行事曆、行程表、日曆的未來
此時的簡單式代表未來,表示說話者持『超然態度』 (psychologically uninvolved) 來說明排定好的行程,這不同於純未來式。

Your bus leaves in fifteen minutes, so hurry up and finish your work!
(巴士十五分鐘之後就要開了,快點做完工作!)

(比較)
本句可用不同時態來改寫:
Your bus is leaving in fifteen minutes, so hurry up and finish your work! (標準用法)
Your bus will leave in fifteen minutes, so hurry up and finish your work! 
(可接受,但這種寫法不是老美的首選 – not the first choice for native speakers!)

I start my new job tomorrow. (我明天要開始新的工作。)

The exhibition opens on January 21st and closes on March 31st.
(展覽一月二十一日開幕,三月三十一日閉幕。)

Tomorrow morning we get up at 6:30, have breakfast at 7:00, get together around here at 7:30, and start for the lake at 7:40.
(夏令營領隊:明天早上 6:30 起床,7:00 吃早餐,7:30 左右在此集合,7:40 前往湖邊。)

A: “Are you free Saturday night?” (禮拜六晚上有空嗎 ?)
B: “Sure, what time are you looking at?” (可以啊,約幾點呢? )

Thank God, it’s Friday. I’m so glad that tomorrow is Saturday.
(謝天謝地,今天是禮拜五。真高興明天就是禮拜六了。)
(說明 ) 本句也可寫成: I’m so glad that tomorrow will be Saturday.

(比較)
If today is Wednesday, the day after tomorrow will be Friday.
(如果今天是禮拜三,後天就是禮拜五。)
If today is Wednesday, the day before yesterday was Monday.
(如果今天是禮拜三,前天就是禮拜一。)

I haven’t got time today, but I can see you tomorrow.
(說明) 當下決定未來的事情,可用現在式來表達「未來」。

I am continuing to work with the QuTem support team, and I believe there are some bigger setup issues so please wait until I am able to address those issues. When does Aspire production begin?
(我與 QuTem 支援小組仍在調查未何他們的設定更改沒有生效。我認為有更嚴重的設定問題,在我解決問題之前請耐心等候。Aspire 將何時量產?)

 

在附屬子句中表示「未來」事件
『現在式』通常在附屬子句中說明未來,這跟中文邏輯思維有所不同,有心學習的網友請多背訟例句來強化語感。

She’ll pay us back when she gets a job.
(她找到工作後便會還我們錢。)
//She’ll pay us back when she’ll get a job.

David will take care of my dog till I get back.
(我回來前大衛會照顧我的狗。)

Breakfast will be ready before you get up.
(早餐在你起床前就會準備好。)

I will offer him financial support if he is in difficulty.
(如果他有困難,我會借錢給他。)

(說明)
1) 主要子句即使沒有使用未來式,只要它隱含未來的意思,附屬子句便要以現在式說明未來情況。
Call me when you arrive in Taipei.
(抵達台北後給我打個電話。)

2) 現在完成式也可使用於從屬子句,藉以說明事情已經完成。
I’ll tell you when I’ve finished.
(我完成後會告訴你。)

3) 比較未來事情時,從屬子句可用『現在式』或『未來式』
She’ll be on the same train as we are tomorrow.
= She’ll be on the same train as we will (be) tomorrow.
(她明天會跟我們搭同一班火車。)

4) 如果主要子句沒有指名未來情況,附屬子句便要使用未來式來表達。
I don’t know where she will be tomorrow.
(我不知道她明天會在哪。)

5) 即使主要已經指名未來情況,但所指名的未來時間與附屬子句所要指名的時間不同,附屬子句仍然要以未來式來表達。

I’ll hide this box somewhere where he‘ll never find it.
(我會把箱子藏起來,讓他永遠不會發現。)

 

現在簡單式與 for 搭配,時間概念會延續到未來

How long are you here (for)? (= Until when…?)
= How long will you stay here (for)?
= How long will you be staying here (for)?
(你要在這裡待多久呢?)

(比較)
How long have you been here (for)? (= Since when…?)
(你已經在這裡待多久了?)

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