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「現在假設式」(條件句一型)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 2, 2010 – 10:07 am

中文語法進化程度極高,沒有任何動詞變化,在表達假設時完全依靠文字堆疊與說話語氣來隱喻假設的真實程度。

馬英九競選總統時若對群眾說:「如果我當選總統,我將…」。英文可翻譯成:
If I become President, I will….

如果這只是普通老百姓的閒聊:「如果總統讓我幹,我會…」。英文可翻譯成:
If I became President, I would….

網友覺得謝長廷當年選總統時應該用 becomebecame 呢?教えてください!

** 再舉一個例子 **

If I win this race, I‘ll 「如果我賽跑贏了,我將…」。(跑最快的選手可能說的話…)

If I won this race, I‘d 「萬一我賽跑贏了,我將…」。(跑最慢的選手說的天方夜譚…)

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英文用動詞變化來表達「假設性的陳述」,依可能性的高低分成以下三種句型:

  • 條件句一型:陳述語氣 (多數為現在假設式)
  • 條件句二型:不可能成為事實的現在或未來 (過去假設式)
  • 條件句三型:未曾成為事實的過去 (過去完成假設式)

網友先體會一下假設語氣的各種模擬情況:

If metal gets hot it expands.
(金屬受熱膨脹。) – 條件句一型 (陳述事實)

She glares at me if I get near her desk.
(我一走近她的辦公桌,她就瞪我。) – 條件句一型 (陳述經常發生的情況)

If you have finished eating you may leave the table.
(你如果吃完了,就可以離席。) – 條件句一型 (現在意料的情況)

If she comes tomorrow, she’ll… (她可能會來,也可能不會來) – 條件句一型 (未來可能發生的事情)

The next time your husband goes on a business trip to Jakarta, let us know and we will tell you exactly where he goes and what he does.
(你老公如果下次到雅加達出差,請告知我們,我們會詳細告訴你他所到之處與所作所為。) – 條件句一型 (未來可能發生的事情)

If he will come tomorrow, I’ll …
(如果他明天願意來,我也將願意..) – 條件句一型 (意願交換句)

If the wolf came here yesterday, it might have left tracks behind. But we must stay saftety conscious while looking for the tracks.
(這隻狼昨天如果有來,可能會留下足跡,但我們尋找足跡時必須小心謹慎。) – 條件句一型 (過去可能發生的事情)

If you learned to use a computer, you would easily find a job.
(如果你學會電腦,就容易找工作了。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If I were you and you were me, what would I see?
(倘若我是你,而你是我,我將會看到什麼?) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

Even if he came tomorrow, he wouldn’t be able to do anything about it.
(就算他明天真的能來,也拿不出任何辦法。) – 條件句二型 (虛擬假設的未來)

If I were to die tomorrow, you would inherit everything.
(我如果明天死掉,你將會繼承所有財產。) – 條件句二型 (虛擬假設的未來)

If he had known yesterday, he would have done something about it.
(他昨天如果知道,應該做些處理才對。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If I had seen you,  I definitely would have said hello.
(我如果真的看到你,應該會跟你打招呼才對。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

I would not be here if he had not assisted me finanically.
(他以前如果沒有金援我,我就不會有今天。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

以下是一段讀者投書,使用了條件句一型 (陳述語氣) 與條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If a married man is tempted (陳述語氣) by another woman, I guarantee she’s selfish and looking out for only her own needs. And if he marries (陳述語氣) her, what he’ll have is an adulteress who lies and cheats. I wish I could change (非事實的現在) everything I have done.
(如果一個已婚男人受到另一個女人的誘惑,我保證那個女人是自私的,只想滿足自己的需求。如果這個男人與她結婚,他娶到的只是個欺瞞偷吃的淫婦。我真希望能夠扭轉我犯下的蠢事。)

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下面要講解《條件句一型》
If 子句使用多種時態,主要句子 (推論句子) 則使用任何表示「未來」意義的時態,甚至過去式都可能,時態的運用跟中文很類似,非常自由,請以邏輯來判斷。

translationIf 子句 (現在簡單式) + 推論子句:情態助詞
If the weather permits, we can hold the part outside in your yard.
(如果天氣許可,我們可以在你的院子舉辦戶外聚會。)

If metal gets hot it will expand.
(金屬受熱會膨脹。)

If I see her, I’ll ask her about it.
(我如果看到她就會問她。) –  未來的動作

If we continue to heat the water, we will begin to observe bubbles form and collapse on the bottom of the beaker.
(如果我們繼續加熱水,便會開始看到燒杯底部有氣泡生成與破滅。)

If you want to win her back, you had better get yourself in shape.
(如果你要贏回她的芳心,你最好回復健美的身材。)
(比較) If you want to win her back, get yourself in shape first.
(要贏回她的芳心,先減肥吧!)

If anyone calls tell them I’m not at home.
(有人來電,就說我不在家。)

You can stay if you like.
(你願意的話,你可以留下來。)
//(比較) 英文中有所謂的 “Distancing” 概念,可用過去式表達客氣,請參照下例:
If you liked I could ask my brother to look at your car. (如果您同意的話,我可以請我弟弟來檢查您的車子。)

** 說話者可憑意志來調整推論子句的說法,以下例句參照
http://www.usingenglish.com/articles/english-conditionals-first-conditional.html

If she gets good grades, she will go to university.
– 說話者認為她絕對會上大學  (If the condition is met, then she definitely will go.)

If he gets good grades, he may go to university.
– 說話者不確定她是否會上大學  (He is not sure about going to university.)

If she gets good grades, she should go to university.
– 說話者表達自己的意願  (The speaker is expressing his or her opinion, giving advice. )

If he gets good grades, he can go to university.
– 說話者認為她有可能上大學  (This means that it is possible.)

If she gets good grades, she could go to university.
– 說話者認為她可能會上大學,雖然不太可能  (This means that it is possible, but not that likely.)

If he gets good grades, he might go to university. This means that it is possible, but not that likely.
– 說話者認為她可能會上大學,雖然不太可能  (This means that it is possible, but not that likely.)

translationIf 子句 (現在簡單式) + 推論子句:現在簡單式
條件與推論具有必然性的互動關係,屬於普遍性的推論。”If” 通常可用 “when” 來替代。

If you heat water to its boiling point, it begins/will begin to vaporize.
(如果你將水加熱至沸點,它便會開始汽化。)
(比較) Water begings to vaporize when it hits its boiling point.
(水到達沸點後就會開始氣化。)

If the weather becomes colder, crop failure follows /will follow / would follow.
(天氣如果變得更冷,農作物便會歉收。)
(說明) 上面三種推論子句的信心程度是:follows > will follow > would follow

Peter is an honest man. If he says it, he means it.
(彼得做人誠信,他說到做到。)

translationIf 子句 (其他現在式) + 推論子句:情態助詞

If you are waiting for the train, please stand behind the yellow line.
(你如果是在等車,請站在黃線後方。) –  正在發生的事情

If you are looking for the rest room, you can find it upstairs.
(如果你要去廁所,請往樓上去。) –  正在發生的事情

If they are still working, I’ll go home.
(如果他們還在工作,我就會回家去。) –  正在發生的事情

If someone is always annoying me, how can you expect me to meet the deadline.
(如果有個傢伙老是在煩我,我怎能如期完成工呢?) – 重複不斷的事情

If you’re leaving for Taipei, I’ll have John drive you to the train station.
(如果你要前往台北,我叫約翰載你去火車站。) – 即將發生的未來事件

If you’re ordering light food it will cost approximately NT$300.
(你如果點輕食,大約只要三百塊台幣。) – 即將發生的未來事件

Ask Wayne if he’s staying tonight.
(去問 Wayne 今晚會不會在這住。) – 即將發生的未來事件

If you have finished your homework, you can watch TV.
(你如果已經做完功課,便可以看電視。) – 已經發生的事件

translationIf 子句 (過去式) + 推論子句:過去式或其他時態
If he came here last Satruday, why didn’t we see him?
(他如果上禮拜六到過這裡,為什麼我們沒看到他?)
=> 說話者不確定他是否昨天在這裡

If he missed the train, he won’t be able to make it tonight.
(如果他當時沒有趕上火車,他今晚將不可能來得及趕到。)
=> 搭火車的時間已過,說話者不確定他是否已經趕上火車
(比較) If he misses the train, he won’t be able to make it tonight.
=> 搭火車的時間還沒到,說話者只是在假設未來萬一發生的情況

If John forgot to inform him of the change, it is very likely that he is waiting for us now.
(如果約翰忘記告訴他我們已經更改計畫,他現在可能正在等我們。)
=> 說話者不確定約翰是否已經告訴他計畫更改的消息

(比較) “will” 可以用來預測目前或者過去的事情,例句:
Don’t phone them now – they’ll be having dinner.
(別打電話給他們,他們現在一定在吃晚餐)。
因此,上面那句話可以改成:
If John forgot to inform him of the change, he’ll be waiting for us now.

translationIf 子句 (should) + 推論子句:祈使句
在 If 子句中加入 “should” 表示「更不確定」。推論子句通常為祈使句

這種句型有時會以倒裝」的形式出現:Should anyone call… = If anyone should call…

If you should see Keith, say hi for me to her.
(要是你碰見凱西,替我問候她一聲。)

If you should have any problems assembling this machine, please contact your local dealer immediately.
(如果萬一您組裝這個機器時遇到任何問題,請立即聯絡在地的經銷商。)

If he should have forgotten to go to the airport, nobody will be there to meet her.
(萬一他忘了去機場,就沒有人去接她了。)
–接機的時間可能已過,而且說話者不確定他是否去了機場。

Should anyone call, please tell them I’m busy.
= If anyone should call, please tell them I’m busy.
約 = If anyone calls, please tell them I’m busy.
((萬一)有人來電,就說我很忙。)

Should you be interested in our offer, please contact us at your earliest convenience.
(您若是對我們的報價有興趣,請在您最方便的時刻儘速與我聯繫。)
=> 正式的英文會用倒裝句型,如本例的商用英文。

translationIf 子句 (will / would) + 主要子句:禮貌或客氣的請求
有時可在 If 子句中加入 will /would 來提出禮貌或客氣的請求。在這種句子中,使用 “would” 比 “will” 更加有禮貌。

If you will sit down for a few moments, I’ll tell the manager you’re here.
(請稍坐,我去告知經理你來了。)
= Please sit down, I’ll tell the manager you’re here.

We would be much honored if you would attend this celebration.
(您若能出席本次慶祝宴會,我們將備感榮幸。)

If you would like to come, I’ll send you an invitation.
(如果您願意賞光,我將為您寄上一份請帖。)

translationIf 子句 (未來式) + 推論子句:交換條件/發出抱怨

If you will need my companion, I will be willing to reschedule the meeting.
(如果你會需要與我陪伴,我會去更改會議時程。) – 交換條件
=> 對方並非現在就能決定是否需要人陪伴。

If they won’t accept our terms of discount, we’ll have to cancel this order.
(如果他們不願意接受我們的折扣條件,我們必須取消這項訂單。) –交換條件

If you will work late today, I’ll let you have Thursday off.
(如果你願意今天晚下班的話,我可以讓你禮拜三休假。)–交換條件

If you will drive fast, the police will stop you.
(你如果要開快車的話,警察會把你攔下來。)–發出抱怨 /表達心中不悅

translation祈使語氣的條件子句
Freeze! You, drop the weapon!
(別動!放下武器。)

Be good and I’ll let you give me a nice Lewinsky later.
(乖一點,我稍後會讓你…。) – 相信大家都知道 Lewinsky 是誰,又幹了什麼好事。

Knock it off, or I’ll spank you.
(別鬧了,不然我打你屁股。)

Take an umbrella, or you will get soaked.
(帶把雨傘,不然妳會全身淋溼。)

translationif + any / anything / ever / not …

這種句型常見於句子中間,用來緩和語氣,讓作者的口氣讀起來不那麼武斷。

There is little if any good eveidence for flying saucers.
(幾乎沒有證據可以證明飛碟的存在。)

I’m not angry. If anything, I feel a little shocked.
(我沒有生氣,只是有點震驚而已。)

He seldom if ever travels abroad.
(他很少出國旅行。)

Usually, if not always, we write ‘cannot’ as one word.
(我們通常將 cannot 寫成一個單字。)

【解說來源】Practical English Usage by Michael Swan

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