英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (4)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 11, 2009 – 5:44 am

這是英文「現在簡單式」講解的最後一部份,前三部份在『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (1)』、『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (2)』與『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (3)』。閱讀下面英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

◎ 以現在式陳述故事或笑話

說故事或笑話:以現在式描述 (場景描述),用於非正式的場合。
說故事或笑話:以過去式描述 (普通敘事),作者目的是要讓讀者知道它們曾經發生過,此種寫作方式比較正式。

1) There‘s this Scotsman, you see, and he’s walking through the jungle when he meets a gorilla. And the gorilla’s eating a snake sandwich. So the Scotsman goes up to the gorilla… (Practical English Usage by Michael Swan. p462)

(說明) 說故事時以現在式來「鋪陳劇情」,說明接二連三發生的事情。現在進行式則提供「背景資訊」,所謂「背景資訊」就是故事開始時正在發生的事情,或者故事中持續某段時間的事情或動作。

2)  A panda walks into a cafe. He orders a sandwich, eats it, then pulls out a gun and shoots the waiter. “Why?” groans the injured man. The panda shrugs and walks out, tossing a badly punctuated wildlife manual over his shoulder. When the waiter consults the book, he finds the explanation for this behaviour. The entry for “panda” reads: “Large black and white mammal native to China. Eats, shoots and leaves.”

(說明) 這則笑話以現在式來「鋪陳劇情」,說明接二連三發生的事情。內容是講亂用標點符號而鬧出的笑話,最後一句原本應該是 “Eats shoots and leaves” (專吃嫩芽與樹葉),結果多了一個標點符號 “Eats, shoots and leaves” (吃東西、射殺,然後離開),意思完全走樣。

3) Seeing that people were becoming more and more wicked, God was grieved that he had made them. But there was one man, called Noah, who found favor in the eyes of God.  “I am going to destroy all people, for the earth is filled with violence because of them,” God told Noah.  “Every living animal will die. I want  you to make an boat of cypress wood; make rooms in it and coat it with pitch inside and out. This is how you are to build it: The boat is to be 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high.”

Then,  God added, “I am going to send flood to cover the earth. Only you, your family, and the animals that are inside the boat, will be kept safe.” With the help of his three sons (Shem, Ham, and Japheth), Noah obeyed God and began to build an enormous boat called an “ark”.  He followed what God had commended him precisely. When the ark was finished, God sent two of every kind of animal and bird – one male and one female – and they all went into the ark. As soon as the last animal was on board, God told Noah and his family to get in, too. God himself closed the door behind them.

神看到世人變得愈來愈邪惡,心理難過,後悔創造了人類。然而,唯有挪亞在 神眼前蒙恩。 神告訴挪亞:「我要毀滅所有的人,因為他們讓地上充滿邪氣敗壞。凡有血氣的活物都將滅亡。你要用歌斐木造一艘船,裡面要有隔間,內外要抹上松香。船的造法如下:長 450 英尺,寬 75 英尺,高 45 英尺。」

然後, 神接著說:「我要使洪水氾濫於地上。唯有你、你的家人,以及船上的活物能夠保全生命。」挪亞照著 神的旨意,在三個兒子 (閃、含與雅弗)  的協助之下建造了一艘巨大的船,稱為「方舟」。凡 神所吩咐的,挪亞都照樣行。方舟完成之後, 神吩咐凡有血肉的活物,每樣兩個,一公一母,都進入到方舟之內。最後一隻活物上船之後, 神命令挪亞與其家人也進到方舟。然後, 神親自關上方舟的門。
(說明) 說故事時以過去式來「鋪陳劇情」,屬於正式的用法。


◎ 一般雜誌或文章常以現在式講述事件或描述物體

Nestled amidst a neighborhood of single story bungalows in Venice, California, the Solar Umbrella Residence boldly establishes a precedent for the next generation of California modernist architecture. Located on a 41’ wide x 100’-0” long through lot, the Solar Umbrella addition transforms the architects’ existing 650 square foot bungalow into a 1900 square foot residence equipped for responsible living in the twenty-first century.

Inspired by Paul Rudolph’s Umbrella House of 1953, the Solar Umbrella provides a contemporary reinvention of the solar canopy—a strategy that provides thermal protection in climates with intense exposures. In establishing the program for their residence, which accommodates the couple and their one child chose to integrate into the design, principles of sustainability that they strive to achieve in their own practice. The architects carefully considered the entire site, taking advantage of as many opportunities for sustainable living as possible.  Passive and active solar design strategies render the residence 100% energy neutral. Recycled, renewable, and high performance materials and products are specified throughout.  Hardscape and landscape treatments are considered for their aesthetic and actual impact on the land.  The Brooks Scarpa Residence elegantly crafts each of these strategies and materials, exploiting the potential for performance and sensibility while achieving a rich and interesting sensory and aesthetic experience.

(翻譯)「太陽傘住宅」坐落於加州威尼斯海灘 (Venice),四周皆為單層平房,這間住宅作風大膽,為下一代加州的現代主義建築創下了先例。「太陽傘住宅」寬 41 英尺,長 100 英尺,整體宅院為通透形式,其擴建部份將原本 650 平方英尺的單層平房轉變成 1900 平方英尺的住宅,居家設施是針對二十一世紀環保生活而規劃。

「太陽傘住宅」的設計概念源自於保羅.魯道夫 (Paul Rudolph) 1953 年興建的「雨傘住宅」(Umbrella House),將「大陽能頂蓬」重新塑造成現代形式,可在烈日的氣候中發揮隔熱效果。本宅院是供一對夫婦及其獨生子居住,設計師在規劃設施時將他們致力推動的永續原則整合進去。建築師曾經仔細考慮過整個場址,僅可能在各個細節去實踐永續生活的原則,無論消極或積極的太陽能設計都讓整間住宅在能源使用上自給自足。住宅內隨處可見回收、再生與高效率的建材與產品。設計師在規劃景物設施 (hardscape) 與宅院風貌時,都曾針對美感與對土地的實際衝擊來加以考量。「布魯克斯卡帕住宅」(Brooks Scarpa Residence) 以高雅的方式運用每一項環保設計與建材,將效能與敏銳度發揮到極致,同時營造出豐富有趣的感官體驗與美學效果。 


◎ 撰寫『評論』

Du Fu is one of the undisputed geniuses of Chinese poetry – still universally admired and read thirteen centuries after his death. Du Fu masters all the forms of Chinese poetry. His poems use a wide range of registers, from the colloquial to the allusive literary.


(說明) 寫杜甫傳則必須用過去式
Du Fu (杜甫, 712-770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. Along with Li Bai (Li Po), he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets. His own greatest ambition was to help his country by becoming a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations. His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755, and the last 15 years of his life were a time of almost constant unrest.

杜甫 (公元 712 年 – 770 年) 乃是著名的唐朝詩人,常與李白並稱為中國最偉大的詩人。他胸懷壯志,矢志考取功名為國效力,可惜卻窮途潦倒,難以溫飽。杜甫的一生風雨飄搖,猶如當時的朝廷,因著安祿山之亂而顛沛流離。杜甫離世前的15年,生活大多艱辛困頓。


◎ 其他

  • This issue is discussed in Chapter One. (將整本書視為完整的整體)
    This issue was discussed in Chapter One.(將整本書視為逐次完成)
    This issue has been discussed in Chapter One. (強調已經討論過這項問題了)
  • As you will see from my resume, I have a great deal of experience in program development, administration, contract development, and budget planning. 
    – Cover letter 寫法,應徵者認定雇主待會會讀他的履歷表
    As you can see, there is a river at the bottom of the canyon. It is the Colorado River.
    – 書本寫法,作者要讀者看書中圖片
    As you should know by now, I like to be very upfront with the membership about RIOY. We have been hit by a few unforeseen circumstances that have had a significant impact on our business.
    – 發文者假定收信者已經知道某件事
    As you already may have heard by now, the FTC has some new rules coming into effect in December.
    – 發文者假定收信者已經知道某件事



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