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英文「未來表達方式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: May 20, 2010 – 7:03 am

英文的時態觀念與中文略有不同,而且使用方式多變。通常初級英語課程會簡化時態觀念,以方便初學者在短期內上手,這是無可厚非的做法。可惜,過於簡化的時態觀念會讓學生掉入錯誤的陷阱而不自覺。版主舉一個例子來說明這種狀況:

課堂上美籍英文老師指導學生,描述過去的事情用『過去式 (I went to ….)』,描述現在的事情用『現在式 (Ice melts at…) / 現在進行式 (He is watching…)』,描述現在的事情則用『未來式 (I will …)』。這種簡化的方式讓教學進展迅速,學生大都能夠接受。然而,要是遇到下面的狀況,心思細膩的學生就會產生疑問:

老師:’Hurry up! The school bus is leaving in 15 minutes. No time to waste.’ (快點!校車15分鐘後就要開了。別再拖了。)

在這種情況之下,老美通常不會說 ‘The school bus will leave in 15 minutes.’ 這無關文法對錯,而是使用習慣的問題。華人如果要精通英文,就必須確實瞭解英文的時態觀念。英文有許多表達未來的方式,因此版主不會用『未來式』概括一切,而會用『未來表達方式』。

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

 

◎ 現在簡單式

如果利用『簡單式』說明未來,則表示說話者持超然的態度來說明 (psychologically uninvolved) ,與純未來式有所不同。這種情況多半是由行程表、行事曆、火車時刻表或工作計畫「排定好」的未來。

The train leaves tonight at 8 PM.
(火車今晚八點開。)

When do we board the plane?
(我們何時要登機?)

Are you available tomorrow afternoon?
(你明天下午有空嗎?)

When does the lease expire? 
(租約何時到期?)

(說明) 其實這種用法的使用存乎一心,因人而異,版主最近還看到下面的例子:

KG today announced that it will host an Investor and Analyst Meeting on Friday, May 28, 2010 in Taipei. 

On-site registration begins at 10:30 A.M. Eastern Time and management presentations will begin at 14:30 P.M. A live webcast of the meeting can be accessed by logging on to the Company’s website at www.KG.com.tw. A replay will also be available on the Company’s website after the meeting.

前半部分用現在式,後半部份則用未來式,可見英語時態的彈性頗大。這只能體會之後,運用於生活中要使用英文的場合。 

 

◎ 現在進行式
使用現在進行式來表達近期的未來事件。

** 表達即將或者近期的要做的事件
Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
(他下禮拜要去探望爸媽嗎?)

Isn’t he coming with us tonight?
(他今晚不是要跟我們去?)

“Andrea, Tom Brokaw is coming to you! Are you ready?”
(Andrea,Tom Brokaw 要跟你連線!準備好了嗎?)
From: The Age of Turbulence by Alan Greenspan


**  表示個人的安排或約定 (personal arrangements or fixed plans)
Q: “When are you leaving?” (你何時要離開?)
A: “I’m leaving tonight.” (我今晚離開。)

“What are you doing tonight?”  = “What’s your plan for tonight?”
(你今晚想做什麼?)
“I’m staying at the hotel. I’m very tired and still have jet lag after the long flight.”
 (我想待在旅館。長途飛行之後,我非常疲憊,況且我還有時差問題。)

I am meeting some friends after work.
(我下班後要跟朋友見面。)

◎ 比較下面兩種情況:
(Scenario 1)
“Come on in. Let me buy you a drink. What would you like?”
“Thanks. But I don’t drink.” (我不喝酒)
“You don’t drink? Why?”

(Scenario 2)
“Come on in. Let me buy you a drink. What would you like?”
“Thanks. I’m not drinking.” (我不想喝酒/我不喝酒)
“You’re not drinking? Oh, I see! You’re the designated driver.”

** 現在進行式搭配移動動詞,說明動作剛開始
We use the present progressive with verbs of movement to talk about actions which are just starting

Are you coming to the pub?
(你正(要)前來酒吧嗎?)

I’m just popping out to the post office. Back in a minute.
(我正前往郵局,一會兒就會回去。)

Get your coat on! I’m taking you down to the doctor!
(穿上外套!我帶你去看醫生。)

 

◎ be going to + (動詞原型)
此種句型表示:
(1) 根據實際證據來預測近期或者即將發生的事情
(2) 說話者的意願說明他人計畫
(3) 立定志向(無論志向是否實際)

**根據實際的證據來預測近期或者即將發生的事情
Look at the sky. It’s going to rain. (你看天空,就快要下雨了!)

Sandra’s going to have another baby in June. (Sandra 又要在六月添一個寶寶。)

Oh, my God! We’re going to crash! (天啊,我們要撞毀了!)

I’m going to wet my pants if I don’t take a leak. (我再不上廁所的話,就要尿出來了。)

Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
(Michelle 明年就要去讀醫學院。)

 

** 說話者的意願或說明他人的計畫
I’m going to visit Tom tonight. (我今晚將去拜訪湯姆。)

We’re going to get a new car soon. (我們很快就會買一部新車。)

I’m going to keep asking her out until she says ‘Yes’.
(我要不斷約她出去,直到她點頭答應。)

When are you going to get your hair cut?
(你什麼時候要去理髮?) – 詢問

Who are you going to invite to the party?
(你想邀請誰參加聚會?) – 詢問
She is going to spend her vacation in Miaoli.
(她要去苗栗度假。) – 肯定
She is not going to spend her vacation in Miaoli.
(她不會去苗栗度假。) – 否定

Since nearly everyone he talks to is converting their accounts into the new plan, here is what Karl is going to do. Unless he hears from you specifically otherwise, he is going to convert everyone over to the 80% plan.
(每個會員與Karl 通過電話之後,都要將帳戶轉換到新的計畫,因此他 (Karl)決定這樣做。除非你告訴他不想加入新計畫,否則他將會把每個會員轉換到 80% 的新計劃。)

 

I’m going to be an actor when I grow up. / I want to be an actor when I grow up.
(我長大之後要當演員。) – 立定志向
 

**立定志向(無論志向是否實際) 
He often says he is going to study law and become a judge.
(他常說他將來要學法律,然後當法官。) – 立定志向

From now on, I’m going to go running every day.
(從現在起,我每天都要去跑步。) – 立定志向

One day in 1996, one of my children came home disillusioned with school. He was bored and tired of studying. “Why should I put time into studying subjects I will never use in real life?” he protested. Without thinking, I responded, “Because if you don’t get good grades, you won’t get into college.” “Regardless of whether I go to college,” he replied, “I’m going to be rich.”
(一九九六年的一天,最小的孩子帶著破滅的幻想從學校歸來,他說他已經厭倦了,不想再去學習。「為什麼我要花時間去那些我真實生活中一輩子也用不到的東西呢?」他抗議道。我毫不思索地答道:「因為如果你學得不好就進不了大學。」「可我並不想去上大學呢,」他說,「我只想發財。」)
(說明) 這是《富爸爸,窮爸爸》台灣中譯本的翻譯,嚴格說並不精準。最後一句最好翻成:「不管有沒有讀大學,我都要賺大錢。」- 立定志向

 

translation
** 現在進行式與 be going to 在說明「未來」時的差異:
現在進行式 – 強調安排好的計畫 (fixed arrangement)
‘be going to’ – 強調意圖 (intention) & (以實際證據) 客觀預測

Are you doing anything this weekend? – 詢問計畫
Are you going to do anything this weekend? (這種句型比較不自然)

Are you going to do anything about that letter from the tax man? – 詢問意圖
Are you doing anything about that letter from the tax man?  (這種句型比較不自然)

Who’s cooking lunch? (午餐由誰來煮?) – asking what has been arranged
Who’s going to cook lunch? (誰要煮午餐?) – asking about a decision

I’m getting a new job. (我已經找到新工作了。) – 已經錄用但是還沒正式上班
I’m going to get a new job. (我決定要去找新工作。)– 還沒找到工作

*(參考下面的論壇留言)*
I’m getting a new job but having a hard time finding a place to live (留言標題)
I just got a new teaching job. But I’m worried I’m going to have a hard time finding a place to live. (留言內容)
(說明) 作者已經找到工作,只是很難找到租屋處。

Things are going to get better soon. (事情很快就會好轉。)
(Things are getting better soon.) (非人所能控制,不用現在進行式)

He’s going to have an accident one of these days. (他遲早會出車禍。) – 推測
(He’s having an accident one of these days.) (非人所能控制,不用現在進行式)
//one of these days = soon

It’s going to snow before long. (不久就會下雪。) – 判斷
(It’s snowing before long.) (非人所能控制,不用現在進行式)

Our house is getting/ is going to get new windows this summer.
(我們家這個夏天要裝新窗戶。)

Their new house is going to look over the river. (他們新家將可眺望這條河流。)
(Their new house is looking over the river.) – 永久性狀態不能用現在進行式
 
translation
現在式與 ‘be going to’ 皆可表示:
(1) 命令
(2) 拒絕

You’re finishing/going to finish that soup even if you have to sit here all afternoon!
(不管你是否要耗整個下午,你都得把湯喝完。)

She’s taking /going to take that medicine whether she likes it or not.
(不管你喜不喜歡,你都得吃藥。)

I’m sorry, you’re not taking my car.
(抱歉,你不能拿我的車。) – 斷然否決時常用現在進行式

I’m not bloody well washing your socks!
(我才不要洗你的襪子!)

 
translation 
going to = (口語) gonna

Nobody’s gonna talk to me like that.
(沒人可以這樣跟我說話。)

“Do you see the girl in the picture?”
(你有看到照片中的女孩嗎?)
“Yeah.” (有啊。)
“This is the girl I’m gonna marry.” (她是我的未婚妻。) 

  

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