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英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 14, 2009 – 3:10 pm

通常會話所談論的話題,都是當下發生的事情,或者即將與近期未來將發生的事情,英美人士遇到這種情況是透過『現在進行式』來表達想法。版主初學英文時,發覺老外說話時很愛用『現在進行式』,不過當時因為所知有限,一直以為『現在進行式』只能用在說明「當下進行的事情」,因此對於說話內容常常一知半解,摸不著頭緒,內心感覺甚為沮喪。這是古人所謂的「管中窺豹」,難以看見事物的全貌所造成的結果。版主接下來會詳細講解英文『現在進行式』所包含的全部概念,如有任何疑問,歡迎隨時賜教。

這是英文『現在進行式』講解的第一部份,其餘部份在『英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (2)』、『英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (3)』、『英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (4)』。閱讀下面英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

『現在進行式』的用法:

1. 表達「現在或現階段」的事情
「現在」的概念相當有彈性,可以指「此時此刻」或抽象的「目前或現階段」,亦可以表示說話之前、當時與之後的動作或行為 We use the present progressive to talk about temporary actions and situations that are going on “around now” –before, during and after the moment of speaking.

請各位讀者務必細讀上面的中英文解說
。版主再強調一次,『現在進行式』是描述:剛剛、當下、即將發生的事件。一般英文老師常講解的不夠深入,這樣會造成日後的學習障礙。

 (例句)

“What class are you coming from?” (你剛剛上完什麼課回來?)
“Psychology. Never take it. It sucks.” (心理學。千萬別去聽那門課,爛死了。)
(說明) 說話時心理學這門課已經結束,並非正在上課。


“I think we’d better move to our new place next week.” (我看我們最好下星期搬到新居。)
 “You didn’t hear what I told you. You’re just not listening.”
(你沒聽到我說什麼嗎?你根本沒在聽!) – 延伸的時間從剛剛到現在。

The last stragglers are just finishing the race.
(跑在最後面的人剛剛抵達終點。) – 指剛才發生的事情。

“Hurry up! We‘re all waiting for you!”
(快點!大夥都在等你呢!) – 當下

“Someone is knocking the door. Can you answer it?”
(有人在敲門,可以幫忙應門嗎?)  – 當下

“What are you doing here?”
(你在這裡幹什麼?) – 當下

“Why are you limping?”
(你走路怎麼一拐一拐的?) – 當下

“I fell down the stairs and broke my leg.”
(我從樓梯摔下來,把腿摔斷了。)

Why is he hitting the dog?
(他為什麼一直打那隻狗?) – 持續動作

Why are you jumping up and down?
(你為什麼一直跳上跳下?) – 持續動作

My car is acting up again.
(我的車又出問題了。) – 當下且持續
(說明) 老美在描述機器壞掉時,都會用現在進行式,而非過去式或者現在完成式,這點跟華人的思維有點不一樣,請網友多加注意。
下面略加說明:
My sewing machine is not working right!
I have a brother 5000PRW. It’s bran new, and I’ve only sewn a couple of pillow cases. Now I’m trying to make a pillow, and was almost done when the machine made a loud noise and an error 6 popped up.
(說明) 這位老美講述機器發生壞掉的狀況時用過去式,但要說明機器壞掉的狀況,則用現在進行式。

(比較)
“I just got my car out of the garage.” (我剛把送去修的車開回來了。)
“Really?” (是嗎?怎麼回事?)
“My car was acting up again and I went to the same garage as you.”
(我的車有點問題,所以我把它開到你去過的那家維修站修理。)
(說明) My car is acting up again –> My car was acting up again.

I am reading a book by Russell Baker.
(我在讀羅素貝克所寫的ㄧ本書。)
(說明) 你可能在說話時正在讀這本書,也可能聊天時談到你 (最近) 正在讀這本書,你已經開始讀,不過還沒讀完。

Professor Chang is teaching English at a local university.
(張博士在本地的一所大學教授英文。) – 用於說明暫時的職業,現在進行式給予人變動與持續的印象。

He’s working in Saudi Arabia at the moment.
(他目前在沙烏地阿拉伯工作。) – 用於說明臨時 (短暫) 的職業
(說明)
現在進行式說明臨時或短暫的狀態,現在式則表示持續的狀態,請比較下列的句子。
My sister is living at home for the moment. (我妹妹將暫時住家裡。)
You live in Taipei, don’t you? (你住在台北,沒錯吧?)


In British English, vacation is mainly used for the periods when universities are not teaching.
(在英式英文中,”vacation” 主要是指大學的假期。) – 說明短暫的連續假期。

He’s seeing a lot of Felicity these days.
(他這陣子經常與Felicity 碰面。) – 持續行為。

Are you seeing someone special?”
(你有男(女)朋友嗎?) – 持續行為。

Billy earns about $70 per month, and he is saving some of the money to go to college.
(比利每月大月賺70 美金,他一直把部份的薪水存起來準備上大學。)- 持續行為。

Q. You live in San Francisco. Are you waking up extra early to watch the World Cup? (你住在舊金山,有很早起床去收看世界杯嗎?)- 持續行為。
A. I’m recording some games to watch at a more reasonable hour. I really enjoyed the Brazil-North Korea game. The Maicon goal was a tremendous, world-class goal.
(我錄了一些比賽,在比較正常的時間觀賞。我真的很喜歡看巴西對北韓之戰。Maicon 的進球真是棒,有世界級的水準。)- 持續行為。

The author’s profits from this book are being donated to charity.
(作者本書的版稅全數捐獻給慈善團體。) –  持續行為,一有版稅收入便立即捐獻。
(比較) The author’s profits from this book will be donated to charity. –  版稅會捐獻出,什麼時候捐並未說明。

We’re downsizing these days.”
(我們公司最近正在大裁員。) – 這一陣子的裁員潮。
You’re not trying to tell me I got cut, are you?”
(你不會是要說我被裁掉了吧。) – 當下

Why is that girl standing on the table?
(那個女孩為何站在桌上?)
Chetford Castle stands on a hill outside the town.
(雀德福城堡位於城外的山丘上。) – 不可使用現在進行式描述長期 (永久) 的狀態。
(說明) Chetford Castle is standing on a hill outside the town.

 

2.「勸阻/命令對方」或者「表示不滿」

You’re not taking anything out of this house!
(你不准從這間屋子帶走任何東西!)
(說明) 這是人的直覺反應,看到別人「正在」帶走東西,就加 “not” 改成否定形式,表示你不允許某人做某件事。
這句話略等於:”You’re not allowed to take anyting out of this house.” 或者 “I won’t let you take anything out of this house.”

“People said the same thing about me.”
You’re not taking his side,” Lisa accused. (你可不能認同他的做法/觀點。)
“I’m not taking his take,” Kirk replied, putting his hands on her shoulders. “But I do understand him.”

You’re finishing that soup even if you have to sit here all afternoon!
(不管你是否要耗整個下午,你都得把湯喝完。) – 下命令
=You’re going to finish that soup even if you have to sit here all afternoon!

She’s taking that medicine whether she likes it or not.
(不管你喜不喜歡,你都得吃藥。) – 下命令
= She’s going to take that medicine whether she likes it or not.

I’m not bloody well washing your socks!
(我才不要洗你的襪子!)  – 表示不滿





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