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英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (4)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 17, 2009 – 8:22 am

閱讀下面英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。『現在進行式』讓文章與話語充滿動感,英美人士若要敘述『臨時或刻意的行為』,通常會選用『現在進行式』。準確掌握這點,方能正確理解與撰寫英文文章。

這是英文『現在進行式』講解的第四部份,其餘部份在『英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (1)』、『英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (2)』、『英文「現在進行式」的使用時機 (3)』。

6. Be 動詞的現在進行式

『Be 動詞的現在進行式』往往具有「暫時 / 刻意為之」的意思。

He is difficult. (他很難纏。)
He is being difficult. (他故意找麻煩。)
He was being difficult. (他剛才故意找麻煩。)
He has been particularly difficult recently. (這陣子他特別喜歡找麻煩。)

You are stupid.(你笨死了。)
You are being stupid. (你在裝笨/你根本不想了解。)

You are very nice.
(你真好/你對我們真好。)
You are just being nice.
(哪裡,您只是不好意思說而已。) – 這時是回應他人稱讚時的客套話

How can you tell if someone is truly being honest with you?
(你如何知道別人有跟你說實話?)

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈
(說明)
L.G. Alexander (中國郵報 – 亞歷山大信箱) 對於 The progressive of “be” (be 動詞的現在進行式) 的解說如下:
Question: What is the difference between the two sentences: Tom is funny and Tom is being funny?

Answer:
In Tom is funny, “is” is a full verb in the simple present tense (完整的簡單現代式動詞). The sentence describes a permanent state.
In Tom is being funny, “is” is an auxiliary verb (助動詞) + present participle (現在分詞) (being). The present and past progressive of “be” are rare and are used to describe temporary behavior. We use the progressive with a small range of adjectives and nouns.

** Tom is being naughty / silly / annoying / a naughty boy. (temporary behavior)
** Tom is naughty /  silly / annoying / a naughty boy. (permanent state)

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈

下面是電影《當哈利遇上莎莉》(比利·克里斯托、梅格·萊恩主演) 的節錄:

Jess: I like it, it works. It says home to me.
(我喜歡這張桌子,我要把它留下)

Marie: Alright, alright. We’ll let Harry and Sally be the judge. (To Harry and Sally) What do you think?

Harry: It’s nice. (很好看啊)

Jess: Case closed. (就這麼說定了)

Marie: Of course he likes it, he’s a guy. Sally?

(Sally shakes her head.)

~~~//~~~

Harry: You know it’s funny. We started out like this, Helen and I. We had blank walls, we hung things, we picked out tiles together. Then you know what happens? Six years later you find yourself singing “Surrey with a fringe on top” in front of Ira!

Sally: Do we have to talk about this right now?

Harry: Yes, I think that right now actually is the perfect time to talk about this because I want our friends to benefit from the wisdom of my experience. Right now everything is great, everyone is happy, everyone is in love, but you got to know, that sooner or later, you’re going to be screaming at other about who’s going to get this dish. This eight dollar dish will cost you a thousand dollars in phone calls to the legal firm of that’s-mine-this-is-yours.

Sally: Harry…

Harry: Please, Jess, Marie, do me a favour for your own good, put your name in your books right now, before they get mixed up and you don’t know who’s is who’s. Because one day, believe it or not, you’ll go fifteen rounds over who’s going to get this coffee table. This stupid, wagon wheel, Roy Rogers garage sale coffee table! 

Jess: I thought you liked it. (我還以為你喜歡這張桌子。)

Harry: I WAS BEING NICE! (才怪,我根本不喜歡!)

(說明) Harry 根本不喜歡那張桌子,只是礙於情面,不好意思說出來。因此,這句話就是說:I was being nice when I said the table was nice. To be honest with you, I don’t like it at all. 

 

7. 不使用進行式的動詞

這有時跟動詞的基本型態有關,細節請參見『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』。

 

(1) 感官動詞
feel (感到/覺得/給人感覺), look (看起來), hear (聽到/聽說), see (看到), smell (聞到), taste (嚐起來), notice (注意到), observe (注意到), appear (看起來像)

I feel as if I’m going to be sick. 
(我覺得自己好像要生病了。)
Nothing feels right to me.
(我感覺樣樣都不對勁。)

A:You look pale. What’s up? (你看起來臉色不大好。怎麼啦?)
B: That green dip with the chips made me sick. 
(那個沾薯條的綠色的醬讓我有點噁心。)  

Do you smell anything unusual?
(你有聞到任何怪味嗎?)
Your breath smells.
(你有口臭 / 你嘴巴很臭。)

Do you hear me?
(你有聽到我的聲音嗎?)

The cake tastes wonderful. 
(這塊蛋糕好吃極了。)

(例外)
I am looking hard, but I can’t see anything.
(我很仔細看,但看不到什麼。)

“Listen, here comes the footsteps again!” “I am listening, but I can’t hear anything.”
(你聽,腳步聲又來了!我在聽啊,但聽不見什麼。)

The nurse is feeling his pulse.
(護士正在替他把脈。)
 
Tom was feeling his way through the front yard when, suddenly, the light went on and two police officer appeared on the doorstep.
(湯姆當時正在前院摸索前進,突然間燈光一亮,看見兩位警官站在門階。)

Are you feeling better today? (= Do you feel better today?)
(今天舒服點了嗎?)
(說明)
提及個人感覺的動詞 (feel, hurt, ache),使用現在式跟現在進行式所表達的意思幾乎相同,彼此可以互換。
My head aches. = My head is aching.
My head is killing me. (頭疼死了)

“What are you smelling for?” “I smell gas. There might be a leak in the kitchen.”
(你在聞什麼? 我聞到瓦斯味,廚房瓦斯可能在漏氣。)

He sniffed at the wind, scenting the air like a worried elf. “What are you smelling for?” He sighed. “Smoke. It looked like it burned.” (People of the Earth – by W. Michael Gear, Kathleen O’Neal Gear)
(他朝著風聞著氣味,像個焦慮的小精靈在嗅著空氣。「你在聞什麼?」他嘆了口氣,說道:「煙味,好像燒起來了。」)

The cake tastes wonderful. (The cake’s tasting wonderful.)
(這塊蛋糕好吃極了。)
She is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt.
(她正在試喝湯,看看是否需要加鹽。)

Why are you smelling the meat? Is it bad?
(你為什麼在聞這塊肉? 壞掉了嗎?)
Does the meat smell bad? (Is the meat smelling bad?)
(這塊肉聞起來像壞掉了嗎?)

 

(2) 表達情感或情緒的動詞
admire, adore (愛慕), appreciate (感激), care for (喜歡/用於問句與否定句), desire, detest (厭惡), dislike, loathe, like, hate, fear, guess, imagine, love, mind (介意/用於問句與否定句), need, prefer, suspect, value (重視), want, wish 

(例外)
The yen is appreciating against the dollar. (日幣正持續對美元升值。)

“Hurry up and get ready. We are late! What’s your mom doing?” “She’s admiring her reflection in the dressing-room mirrors.”
(快點,我們已經遲到了!你媽在幹嘛? 她還在試衣間欣賞自己的美姿。)

John is loving Mary. (??!!)
(說明) love為狀態動詞,通常不與現在進行式並用。
I’m loving every minute of Wayne’s English class. (okay) – love 轉變成動作動詞
關於動詞的基本型態,請參見『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』。

 

(3) 心智活動的動詞
agree (同意), appreciate (了解), believe, forget, know, mean, perceive (認知), realize, recall (回憶/記起), recognize, recollect (回憶起/記得), remember, see (明白), suppose, think, trust, understand

(例外)
I’m seeing the doctor at ten o’clock.
(我十點要去看醫生。)
I see what you mean. (I’m seeing what you mean.)
(我明白你說的。)

 

(4) 其他動詞
impress, please, satisfy, surprise, belong, owe, own, possess, have, include, contain, deserve, fit, depend on, consist of, lack, resemble, weight

How much do I owe you? (我要付你多少?)

I only have forty dollars with me. (我只有四十塊錢。)

(例外)
The scale broke when I was weighing myself this morning.
(我今天早上秤重時把磅秤搞壞了。)
I weighed 68 kilograms three months ago – and look at me now.
(我三個月前體重才 68 公斤,你看看我現在腫得像頭豬。)

 

 

**(小結) 現在進行式帶有「變化」的意涵,不能與表示狀態的動詞來連用。
Tom is loving Mary
I am knowing the answer.

(比較) I am loving every minute of this wonderful course. (course 是會有結束的日子,love 在此轉化為動作動詞,而非表示持續狀態的動詞)

 

 

**(小結) 現在進行式帶有「變化」的意義,不能用來表示長時間的習慣。
I am jogging at 6 a.m. every day.
(我每天早上六點慢跑) – 不妥的句子,應該改為:I go jogging at 6 a.m. every day.

I am jogging at 6 a.m. each morning during this heat wave.
(熱浪來襲的這段期間我都我每天早上六點慢跑) – 表示可能臨時或會改變的動作習慣
 

 





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