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「過去假設式」(條件句二型)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: January 20, 2011 – 3:34 am

英文用動詞變化來表達「假設性的陳述」,依可能性的高低分成以下三種句型:

  • 條件句一型:陳述語氣 (多數為現在假設式)
  • 條件句二型:不可能成為事實的現在或未來 (過去假設式)
  • 條件句三型:未曾成為事實的過去 (過去完成假設式)

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網友先體會一下假設語氣的各種模擬情況:

translation

If metal gets hot it expands.
(金屬受熱膨脹。) – 條件句一型 (陳述事實)

She glares at me if I get near her desk.
(我一走近她的辦公桌,她就瞪我。) – 條件句一型 (陳述經常發生的情況)

If you have finished eating you may leave the table.
(你如果吃完了,就可以離席。) – 條件句一型 (現在意料的情況)

If you get here before seven, we can catch the early train.  (你如果七點前來,我們可以搭早班火車。) – 條件句一型 (未來可能發生的事情)

The next time your husband goes on a business trip to Jakarta, let us know and we will tell you exactly where he goes and what he does.
(你老公如果下次到雅加達出差,請告知我們,我們會詳細告訴你他所到之處與所作所為。) – 條件句一型 (未來可能發生的事情)

If he will come tomorrow, I’ll …
(如果他明天願意來,我也將願意..) – 條件句一型 (意願交換句)

If the wolf came here yesterday, it might have left tracks behind. But we must stay saftety conscious while looking for the tracks.
(這隻狼昨天如果有來,可能會留下足跡,但我們尋找足跡時必須小心謹慎。) – 條件句一型 (過去可能發生的事情)

translation

If you learned to use a computer, you would easily find a job.
(如果你學會電腦,就容易找工作了。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If I were you and you were me, what would I see?
(倘若我是你,而你是我,我將會看到什麼?) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

Even if he came tomorrow, he wouldn’t be able to do anything about it.
(就算他明天真的能來,也拿不出任何辦法。) – 條件句二型 (虛擬假設的未來)

If I were to die tomorrow, you would inherit everything.
(我如果明天死掉,你將會繼承所有財產。) – 條件句二型 (虛擬假設的未來)

translation

If he had known yesterday, he would have done something about it.
(他昨天如果知道,應該做些處理才對。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If I had seen you, I definitely would have said hello.
(我如果真的看到你,應該會跟你打招呼才對。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

I would not be here if he had not assisted me finanically.
(他以前如果沒有金援我,我就不會有今天。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

以下是一段讀者投書,使用了條件句一型 (陳述語氣) 與條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If a married man is tempted (陳述語氣) by another woman, I guarantee she’s selfish and looking out for only her own needs. And if he marries (陳述語氣) her, what he’ll have is an adulteress who lies and cheats. I wish I could change (非事實的現在) everything I have done.
(如果一個已婚男人受到另一個女人的誘惑,我保證那個女人是自私的,只想滿足自己的需求。如果這個男人與她結婚,他娶到的只是個欺瞞偷吃的淫婦。我真希望能夠扭轉我犯下的蠢事。)

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下面要講解「過去假設式」《條件句二型》
If 子句使用過去式,而主要句子 (推論句子) 則通常使用 would 當作助動詞。

translationIf 子句 (過去式) + 推論子句:would/should

If my nose were a little shorter, I‘d be quite pretty.
(如果我的鼻子短一點,我看起來就會十分美麗。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If I had two cigarettes, I would give you one.
(我要是有兩根菸,就會分你ㄧ根。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If I knew her phone number, I would tell you.
(如果我知道她的電話,我就會告訴你。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

What would you do if you lost your job?
(你要是失業了,會有怎樣的打算呢?) – 條件句二型 (不太可能成為未來的假設)

If the Third World War broke out, it would mean the end of mankind.
(要是爆發第三次世界大戰,人類可能會滅亡。) – 條件句二型 (不太可能成為未來的假設)

** 這種寫法可以讓你的建議/提議聽起來更為客氣

It would be nice if you helped me a bit with the housework.
(你如果能幫忙做點家事就很好了。)

Would it be all right if I came around about ten tomorrow?
(我明天十點左右到,不知道可不可以?)
(比較)
Will it be all right if I come around about ten tomorrow?
(我明天十點左右來可以嗎?) – 直接的要求,聽起來比較不客氣。

** 請注意下面這種寫法,它看起來像是條件句二型,但實際上是條件句一型,指的是過去的習慣。

If he was hungry, he would always run to the nearest take-away. (If = when = whenever)
(他以前要是肚子餓了,都會跑到最近的外食供應餐廳。) – 條件句一型 (過去的習慣)

** 請注意下面兩句的比較

I would buy that notebook if it were cheaper.
(那台筆電要是便宜點,我就會掏錢去買。)

I would buy that notebook when it were cheaper.

因為是非事實的假設,if 不可以用 when 來取代。

translationIf I were  + 推論子句:would/should

If I were rich, I would quit and spend all my time travelling.
(如果我有錢,我會先辭職,然後把時間都拿去旅行。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If I were taller, I would play basketball.
(如果我再高一點,我會去打籃球。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

(注意)
We should be grateful if you would be so kind as to let us have your check as soon as possible. – 客氣的寫法
We should be grateful if you were so kind as to let us have your check as soon as possible.
(如果您能夠儘快給予我們支票,我們將萬分感激。)

translationIf 子句 (were/was to) + 推論子句 (would/should/could/might…)
If the boss was to / were to come in now, we‘d be in real trouble.
= If the boss came in now, we‘d be in real trouble.
(老闆如果現在進來,我們就要倒楣了。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

What would we do if I was to / were to lose my job?
(萬一我失業了,我們該怎麼辦呢?) – 條件句二型 (不太可能成為未來的假設)

If you were to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down.
(您如果可以挪一下椅子,我們大家都可以坐下。) – 客氣的建議

If I were to know her name, I would tell you. (這句話是錯誤的)
-> If I knew her name, I would tell you.
(如果我知道她的名字,我就會告訴你。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

translationIf it was not for / If it were not for 句型

If it wasn’t / weren’t for his father’s money he’d never be a director.
= Without his father’s money he’d never be a director.
(要不是有他父親的錢,他也不會成為導演。) – 指現在

If it wasn’t / weren’t for the children, we wouldn’t have anything to talk about.
(要不是有孩子,我們將沒有什麼話題可以聊。) – 指現在

If it hadn’t been for your help, I don’t know what I’d have done.
=  But for your help, I don’t know what I’d have done.
(要不是有你幫忙,我不知道會做出什麼事情。) – 過去

(說明) But for 可以用來指 1. ‘if it were not for’ 2. ‘if it had not been for’

translation省略 If 的情況

Were she my daughter, … (= If she were my daughter,…)

(如果她是我的女兒的話,…。)

Had I realized what you intended to do, … (If I had realized what you intended to do, ….)

(如果我當時知道你的意圖的話,…。)

Had we not changed our reservations, we should all have been killed in the crash.

(如果我們當時沒有更改預定的話,我們可能都已經喪命於車禍。)

Should you change your mind,… (If you should change your mind,…)

(如果你改變心意的話,…。)

You touch me again, I’ll kick your ass.
(你敢再碰我ㄧ下,我就踹你屁股。)

You want to get in, you pay like everybody else. (= If you want to get in, you pay like everybody else.)
(你要進去的話,就要跟別人ㄧ樣付錢。)

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