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英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (2)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 24, 2009 – 5:56 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

這是英文『過去簡單式』講解的第二部份,其餘部份在:
英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (1)
英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (3)
英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (4)

『過去簡單式』最常用於表示過去曾經發生的事情,為了強調故事的真實性,故事書或小說通常會採用過去式來敘事,網友可參見以下範例:

1. 說故事 (story-telling)

(故事一)
SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS
《白雪公主與七個小矮人》

Once upon a time in a great castle, a Prince’s daughter grew up happy and contented, in spite of a jealous stepmother. She was very pretty, with blue eyes and long black hair. Her skin was delicate and fair, and so she was called Snow White. Everyone was quite sure she would become very beautiful.

Though her stepmother was a wicked woman, she too was very beautiful, and the magic mirror told her this every day, whenever she asked it. “Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the loveliest lady in the land?” The reply was always; “You are, your Majesty,” until the dreadful day when she heard it say, “Snow White is the loveliest in the land.” The stepmother was furious and, wild with jealousy, began plotting to get rid of her rival.

很久很久以前,王子的女兒雖然有個忌妒心很強的繼母,她依舊在宏偉的城堡中快樂滿足地成長。她非常美麗,有藍色的眼睛與黑色的長髮。她的皮膚細緻白皙,因此被稱為白雪公主。人人都知道,她將來必定是個天仙美女。
她的繼母雖然邪惡,卻也十分美麗。每天只要她問魔鏡,魔鏡都會這樣告訴她。「魔鏡啊,牆上的魔鏡啊,世界上最美麗的女人是誰?」魔鏡總是這樣回答:「啟稟皇后,您就是最美麗的女人。」然而,可怕的一天來臨了,繼母皇后終於聽到魔鏡說:「白雪公主是世界上最美麗的女人。」她怒火中燒、忌妒萬分,開始計畫要殺害仇敵。

(比較)
維基百科《白雪公主與七個小矮人》的劇情簡介 (Story outline)
Once upon a time, as a queen sits sewing at her window, she pricks her finger on her needle and a drop of blood falls on the snow that had fallen on her ebony window frame. As she looks at the blood on the snow, she says to herself, “Oh, how I wish that I had a daughter that had skin white as snow, lips red as blood, and hair black as ebony”. Soon after that, the queen gives birth to a baby girl who has skin white as snow, lips red as blood, and hair black as ebony. They name her Princess Snow White. As soon as the child is born, the queen dies.

很久很久以前,有一位王后坐在烏木製成的窗邊縫織,針頭刺進了她的手指頭,一滴血滴落於窗櫺的白雪上。看到白雪上的血滴,王后心想:「希望我將來的孩子能夠肌膚白皙如雪、嘴唇赤紅如血、髮絲黑如烏木。」不久之後,她生了一個小女嬰,肌膚雪白,唇如赤血,髮如烏木,人人都稱她白雪公主。王后在孩子一出生後隨即便過世。
(版主說明) 劇情簡介通常採用『現在簡單式』,因此不要以為 “Once upon a time” (很久很久以前) 必定使用過去式,這得看運用的場合。詳細說明請參見『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (3)』。

 

(故事二)
FOOTPRINTS
 《足跡》

One night a man had a dream about walking along the beach with the Lord. The sky flashed scenes from his life. For each scene, he noticed two sets of footprints in the sand: his and the Lord’s. After the last scene flashed before him, he looked at the footprints, noticing that at the most difficult times in his life there was only one set of footprints. “Lord, you said you’d walk with me all the way if I followed you. But during the most troublesome times in my life, there is only one set of footprints. Why did you leave me when I needed you most?” The Lord replied, “I love you and would never leave you. In your times of trial and suffering, when you see only one set of footprints, that was when I carried you.”

某個人有天做夢,夢境是關於他與主同行於沙灘上。他看見天空閃現他生命中的片段回憶,他在每個片段都看到沙灘上有兩排足跡:他的腳印與主的足跡。最終的回憶片段出現之後,他定眼看著那些出現的足跡,發覺在他生命中最艱困的時期只有一排足跡。「主啊,你不是說過,只要我跟隨你,你就會與我同行。可是,當我陷入生命低潮的時候只有一排腳印。為什麼在我最需要你的時候,你要離我而去?」主回答道:「我愛你,絕對不會離你而去。在你最孤苦無助的時候,也就是你只看到一排足跡的日子,那時我正抱著你前行。」

(比較)
Walking With God Daily
《每天與上帝同行》

Imagine going to heaven and standing by God as He lovingly shows you the calendar of His plan for your earthly life. It begins with the day you were born. Once you received Christ as Savior, every day that follows is outlined in red. You see footprints walking through each day of each week of your life. On many of the days, two sets of footprints appear.

想像你到了天堂,站在天父的身邊。天父親切地向你說明祂為你一生所規劃的計畫行程,這項計畫從你出生的那天便開始。當你接受耶穌基督成為你生命的救主之後,接下來的每個日子都以紅色標示。你會看到你生命中的每一天都留下足跡,有許多日子甚至出現兩對足跡。…

You inquire, “Father, are those my footprints on the calendar every day and is the second set of prints when You joined me?”
He answers, “No, My precious child. The consistent footprints on your calendar are Mine. The second set of footprints are when you joined Me.”
“Where were You going, Father?”
“To the destiny I planned for you, hoping you’d follow.”
“But Father, where were my footprints all those times?”
He answers, “Sometimes you went back to look at old resentments and habits while I was still going forward, hoping you’d join me. Sometimes you departed from My path and chose your own calendar instead. Other times your footprints can even be seen on another person’s calendar because you thought you liked their plan better. At other times you simply stopped because you would not let go of something you could not take the next day.”
“But Father, we ended up OK even if I didn’t walk with You every day, didn’t we?”
He holds you close and smiles, “Yes, My child, we ended up OK. But, you see, OK was never what I had in mind for you.”
“Father, what are those golden treasure boxes on certain days?”
“Blessings, My child, I had for you along the way. Those that are open are those you received. Those still closed were days you did not walk with Me.”

(說明) 這是透過「想像」來講述類似的故事,全文皆以「現在式」進行。詳細說明請參見『英文「現在簡單式」的使用時機 (3)』。





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