header-pic
「過去完成假設式」(條件句三型)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: May 24, 2011 – 9:04 am

英文用動詞變化來表達「假設性的陳述」,依可能性的高低分成以下三種句型:

  • 條件句一型:陳述語氣 (多數為現在假設式)
  • 條件句二型:不可能成為事實的現在或未來 (過去假設式)
  • 條件句三型:未曾成為事實的過去 (過去完成假設式)

search-64

網友先體會一下假設語氣的各種模擬情況:

translation

If metal gets hot it expands.
(金屬受熱膨脹。) – 條件句一型 (陳述事實)

She glares at me if I get near her desk.
(我一走近她的辦公桌,她就瞪我。) – 條件句一型 (陳述經常發生的情況)

If you have finished eating you may leave the table.
(你如果吃完了,就可以離席。) – 條件句一型 (現在意料的情況)

If you get here before seven, we can catch the early train. (你如果七點前來,我們可以搭早班火車。) – 條件句一型 (未來可能發生的事情)

The next time your husband goes on a business trip to Jakarta, let us know and we will tell you exactly where he goes and what he does.
(你老公如果下次到雅加達出差,請告知我們,我們會詳細告訴你他所到之處與所作所為。) – 條件句一型 (未來可能發生的事情)

If he will come tomorrow, I’ll …
(如果他明天願意來,我也將願意..) – 條件句一型 (意願交換句)

If the wolf came here yesterday, it might have left tracks behind. But we must stay saftety conscious while looking for the tracks.
(這隻狼昨天如果有來,可能會留下足跡,但我們尋找足跡時必須小心謹慎。) – 條件句一型 (過去可能發生的事情)

translation

If you learned to use a computer, you would easily find a job.
(如果你學會電腦,就容易找工作了。) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If I were you and you were me, what would I see?
(倘若我是你,而你是我,我將會看到什麼?) – 條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

Even if he came tomorrow, he wouldn’t be able to do anything about it.

(就算他明天真的能來,也拿不出任何辦法。) – 條件句二型 (虛擬假設的未來)

If I were to die tomorrow, you would inherit everything.
(我如果明天死掉,你將會繼承所有財產。) – 條件句二型 (虛擬假設的未來)

translation

If he had known yesterday, he would have done something about it.
(他昨天如果知道,應該做些處理才對。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If I had seen you, I definitely would have said hello.
(我如果真的看到你,應該會跟你打招呼才對。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

I would not be here if he had not assisted me finanically.
(他以前如果沒有金援我,我就不會有今天。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

But for Andres Segovia, I wonder if anyone would ever have had the guts to transcribe and perform this amazing work on the guitar.
(如果不是塞哥維亞,我認為沒有人敢將這首驚人的曲子改編成吉他曲來演奏。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

以下是一段讀者投書,使用了條件句一型 (陳述語氣) 與條件句二型 (非事實的現在)

If a married man is tempted (陳述語氣) by another woman, I guarantee she’s selfish and looking out for only her own needs. And if he marries (陳述語氣) her, what he’ll have is an adulteress who lies and cheats. I wish I could change (非事實的現在) everything I have done.
(如果一個已婚男人受到另一個女人的誘惑,我保證那個女人是自私的,只想滿足自己的需求。如果這個男人與她結婚,他娶到的只是個欺瞞偷吃的淫婦。我真希望能夠扭轉我犯下的蠢事。)

database_new

下面要講解「過去完成假設式」《條件句三型》,說話者要表達非事實的過去時可以用這類句型。
If 子句使用過去完成式,而主要句子 (推論句子) 則通常使用 would have + 過去完成式

translationIf 子句 (過去完成式) + 推論子句:would have / should have

If I had been taller, I would have joined the army.
(我如果當時高一點,我早就從軍了。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If you had asked me, I would have told you.
(你當時如果問我,我早就告訴你了。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If I had had any sense, I would have kept quiet about it.
(如果我當時有點腦筋,我早就三緘其口了。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If I had not got married,  I would still have been living abroad.
(如果我當時沒有結婚,我就會住在國外。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去) / 推論子句是 (非事實的現在)

translationIf 子句 (其他時態):would have /should have

If I had been trying harder, I would have won the race.
(如果我當時再努力一點,我就會贏得比賽。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If it had been raining this morning, I would have stayed at home.
(如果早上一直在下雨的話,我就會待在家裡了。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

If I could have stopped, there wouldn’t have been an accident.
(如果我當時能夠停下來,便不會發生事故了。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

translationIf 子句 (過去完成式) + 推論子句;  could have / might have

If John had been here yesterday, he could have told me about it.
(如果約翰昨天在這裡,他就會告訴我了。) – could have => 能力 (非事實的過去)

If John had been here yesterday, he might have told me about it.
(如果約翰昨天在這裡,他可能就會告訴我了。) – might have => 可能性 (非事實的過去)

translationIf it hadn’t been for (But for) + 推論子句

If it hadn’t been for the rain, we would have had a good harvest.
(要不是下雨,我們本來會大豐收的。)– 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

But for Andres Segovia, I wonder if anyone would ever have had the guts to transcribe and perform this amazing work on the guitar.
(如果不是塞哥維亞,我認為沒有人敢將這首驚人的曲子改編成吉他曲來演奏。) – 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

translationIf it had … 的倒裝句型

Had the management responded sooner, the strike could have been avoided.
(如果管理階層早點因應,本來是不會發生罷工的。)– 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

Had it not been for the unusually bad weather, the rescue team would have been able to save the stranded climber.
(如果不是天氣異常糟糕,搜救隊本來是能夠救出那位陷入困境的登山者。)– 條件句三型 (非事實的過去)

website_logo_2

© 英語學習網站《天地無用》- 狂飆英語的樂園





學習類別:  

Comments are closed.