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英文單字 “With” 的特殊用法
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: June 10, 2011 – 10:11 am

今天版主要講的是高級英文寫作必須掌控的一項技巧 (也可以說是一種概念),生長在非英語系國家的人通常都不太會使用這種寫法,版主今天就來講解這個概念,希望能夠對有心更上一層樓的網友有所助益。

這個寫作概念跟英文單字 ‘with’ 密切配合,想必網友從國中時期就會 ‘with’ 這個英文單字,它有幾個重要的使用時機與場合,概略如下:

1. 與某人 (或某物) 在一起
I enjoy spending quality time with the kids.
(我喜歡跟孩子在一起。/ 我喜歡跟孩子共度時光。)

2. 擁有或帶著某物
A house with a beautiful swimming pool
(有美麗游泳池的房舍)

3. 使用工具
The sunlight finally drives the fog away, washing everything in its path with a palette of strong color.
(霧終被陽光驅散了,什麼都加重了顏色。)

4. 表示某種情況、方式或環境
The tiles are arranged with precision.

(瓦是細工排列的。)

5. 由於或因為某件事物 (because of sth; on account of sth)
Her hands were numb with cold. (她的手凍僵了。)

從 ‘with’ 的概念中,我們可以推論出它有「伴隨」以及「連結」的意思。現在我們將這個概念記起來,看看下面這兩句話:

translation

Windows Phone 7 is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft. It was launched in Europe, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand on October 21, 2010, and in the US and Canada on November 8, 2010, Mexico on November 24, 2010, with Asia to follow in 2011.

這裡的 ‘with’ 是代表一種「連結概念」,主詞後面如果用 to + V 是指未來 (後續) 的事件。

translation

With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft offers a new user interface with its design language named Metro, integrates the operating system with 3rd party and other Microsoft services, and controls the hardware it runs on.

這裡的第一個 ‘with’ 跟上面 (代表「連結概念」) 有點差異,中文約略可以翻譯成「有了…」,網友如果要把它套在「表示某種情況」的用法也可以。
上面這句話就是說:微軟的 Windows Phone 7 作業系統提供新的使用者介面…。

第二個 ‘with’ 就是代表「連結概念」,主詞後面用被動語態 (named) 是指 design language 「被稱呼為」Metro

使用這種寫作方式時,網友請記得動詞與主詞之間的關係。主詞如果是「主動做某項行為」,動詞就要用 Ving 或 to + V 的形式 (甚至省略動詞或 be 動詞,也可改用介系詞取代)。主詞如果是「被動狀態」,動詞就要使用被動式。

這個寫作技巧說來很玄,剛接觸時不太容易掌握,感覺像若即若離 (You think you’re approaching it, and then it elusively moves away from you)。

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版主舉幾個英文例子供網友參考:

【出處】王安億《長恨歌》英譯本

它是那種偷襲的方法,從背後擦上一把,轉過身卻沒了影,結果是冤無頭,債無主。

translation By the time you turn around to see what sneaked up on you from behind, it has already gone without a trace. It leaves in its wake a chain of injustices with no one to take the blame and a string of scores with no one to settle with.

流言的浪漫在於它無拘無束能上能下的想像力。這想像力是龍門能跳狗洞能鑽的,一無清規戒律。

translation What makes gossip romantic is its unbridled imagination. With the imagination completely free from all fetters, gossip can leap through the dragon’s gate and squeeze through the dog’s den.

從上面的譯文,我們可以看到國外譯者如何巧妙運用英文單字  ‘with’ ,將中文玄虛而難以言詮的內容拆解開來,然後套入嚴謹有序的英文結構。

有心從事中進英翻譯的人,如能適切掌控  ‘with’  的特殊用法,日後遇到盤根錯節的中文文句時便能游刃有餘,輕易將中文轉換成相對應的優雅英文。

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(補充資料) 版主今天上網閒逛時,又看到  ‘with’  的特殊用:

translation Despite the prevailing lockout, the National Basketball Association Tuesday released the full schedule for the 2011-2012 regular season, opening with the newly-crowned champ Dallas Mavericks going against the Chicago Bulls. – from All Headline News

translation The Mavs and the Celtics will receive the most number of national TV appearances with 30 each. – from All Headline News

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