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英文「關係代名詞」講解 – 基礎篇
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: October 8, 2011 – 2:03 pm

關係代名詞與關係子句
(Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses)

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一、(基本觀念)
掌握關係代名詞的使用方法與時機方能駕馭英文這項語言。

關係子句 (Relative Clause) 以關係代名詞 (Relative Pronoun) 開頭,用來修飾與限定 (代) 名詞,或者提供額外資訊。關係子句猶如形容詞,可用來修飾人、物與事件。

translation

Tourists always prefer crowded holiday resorts. – 用形容詞修飾名詞
(觀光客總是喜歡到擁擠的度假勝地。)

Tourists always prefer holiday resorts which are crowded. – 用關係子句修飾名詞
(觀光客總是喜歡到那些擁擠的度假勝地。)

translation

Those who have not yet registered are advised to do so at once.
(尚未登記的人請立刻登記。)
– 用關係子句修飾名詞 (或者說限定名詞,專指某一群特定人士。)

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translation

我們可以運用關係子句來結合兩個短句:
* Here is an article. It might interest you.
=> Here is an article which might interest you.

(這裡有一篇文章,你可能會感興趣。)

translation

在高級的句型中,英美作家會用關係代名詞與其他連接手段去統整許多短句:

Between midnight and dawn, when sleep will not come and all the old wounds begin to ache, I often have a nightmare vision of a future world in which there are billions of people, all numbered and registered, with not a gleam of genius anywhere, not an original mind, a rich personality, on the whole packed globe.
– J. B. Priestley Thoughts in the Wilderness

(在午夜已過、黎明未臨之前,我常在毫無睡意且舊傷全開始疼痛之時看見令人恐懼的未來世界,那裡有數十億人,全都加註編號且登記造冊。整個世界雖擁擠不堪,卻絲毫找不到靈光乍現的天才,既缺乏充滿創意的人,也不見性格多樣的人。)

上面這句結構複雜的句子其實可以切分成:
1. Between midnight and dawn sleep will not come.
2. All the old wounds begin to ache.
3. I often have a nightmare vision of a future world.
4. There are billions of people in it.
5. They are all numbered and registered.
6. There is not a gleam of genius anywhere.
7. There is not an original mind, a rich personality, on the whole packed globe.

translation

英文常用關係子句來駕馭思維,產生連綿不絕的句子 (柳暗花明又一村) 去描述事情或者說明前因後果。請參考以下例句:
* We’re living in a world where technology is a huge part of our lives, but it can be a blessing or a curse.

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隨著時代的變遷,關係代名詞的使用方式也有些許的轉變,比如說愈來愈多人用 that 來取代 who 來指前面的先行詞 (人), 甚至 who 也可以用在動物身上。版主後續的篇幅會詳加說明。

translation


The people that live next door keep having all-night parties.
(住隔壁的人老是舉辦通宵達旦的聚會。 )

translation


版主也曾經在著名的《新觀念英文》(New Concept English) 中看到 who 用於動物身上:

A bat, who loves eating bananas, here flies round one.

(蝙蝠喜歡吃香蕉,這裡顯示一隻蝙蝠飛過另外一隻。)


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