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英文「關係代名詞」講解 (1)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: October 19, 2011 – 3:08 pm

關係代名詞與關係子句 (1)
(Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses)

本篇講解常用的關係代名詞。

請網友先參閱基本觀念:『英文「關係代名詞」講解 – 基礎篇』。

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Who – 用來代表關係子句中的受詞 (人) – 非正式用法
Whom – 用來代表關係子句中的受詞 (人) – 正式用法
Which – 用來代表關係子句中的受詞 (事物) – 補述用法
That – 用來代表關係子句中的受詞 (人與事物)

* The couple who we met on holiday have sent us a card.
(我們度假時遇到的那對夫婦給我們寄了一張明信片。) – 非正式用法

* He has married somebody whom I do not like. – 正式用法
(他娶了一位我不喜歡的人。)

* I gave him an envelope, which he put in his pocket immediately. – 補述用法
(我給了他一個信封,他隨即將信封放入口袋。 )

* Here is the book that you were looking for.
(這是你要找的書。)

translation

(說明) 我們可以省略當作受詞的關係代名詞 (leave out object pronouns)。

* Here are the papers that you were looking for.
= Here are the papers you were looking for.
(這是你要找的文件。)

translation
(說明)
正式用法 – 介系詞在關係代名詞 (受詞) 前面 – who 與 that 不可以放在介系詞後面。
非正式用法 – 介系詞在關係代名詞 (受詞) 後面。

* Steve Jobs was respected by the people with whom he worked.
= Steve Jobs was respected by the people (that) he worked with .
(與賈柏斯共事的人都尊敬他。)
* Steve Jobs was respected by the people with who / that he worked. – 錯誤句子

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When – 用來代表關係子句中的時間
Where – 用來代表關係子句中的地點
Why – 用來代表關係子句中的原因
(說明) 這些關係代名詞可以改用「介系詞 + which」的形式來取代。

* I’ll never forget the day when I first met you.
= I’ll never forget the day on which I first met you. – 介系詞 + which
(我不會忘記我第一次遇見你的日子。)

* Do you know a shop where I can find computers.
= Do you know a shop at which I can find computers. – 介系詞 + which
(你知道我可以在哪一家商店買電腦嗎?)

* Do you know the reason why she doesn’t like me?
= Do you know the reason for which she doesn’t like me? – 介系詞 + which
(你知道她為何不喜歡我嗎?)

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Whose – 用來代表關係子句主詞的所有格 (用來替代 his / her / its)

* I saw a girl whose hair came down to her waist. .
(我看到一位長髮及腰的女孩。)

* They are the people whose house was broken into yesterday.
(他們是昨天家裡鬧賊的那一家人。)

* He’s written a book whose name I’ve forgotten.
= He’s written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten.
= He’s written a book of which I’ve forgotten the name. – 少見但正確
= He’s written a book that I’ve forgotten the name of. – 少見但正確
(他寫過一本書,書名我忘了。)
(說明) 版主翻譯時曾使用第一種用法 (whose name I’ve forgotten),但是被老美修改成第二種用法。因此,文法歸文法,實際用運時還得看客戶喜好。

translation

(說明)
With 也可用來表達所有格,它與 whose 有類似的功能
* You know the girl whose brother drives lorries?
* You know the girl with a brother who drives lorries? – 本句較為自然
(你認識那位哥哥開大卡車的女孩嗎?)

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(其他關係代名詞)

what / whatever / whoever / whichever / whenever / how / where / but

* What he said made me angry.
(他說的話令我生氣。)
(說明) what 引導的關係子句通常被視為「單數」,但有時接複數名詞時可以視為「複數」。譬如:What we want is/are some of those cakes.

* Take whatever you want. = Take anything that you want.
(你想要什麼就拿去。)

* I’ll take whoever wants to go. = I’ll take anyone who wants to go.
(誰想去我就帶誰。)

* Take whichever you like best. = Take anything that you like best.
(最喜歡哪一個,你就拿去。)

* I often think about where I met you. = I often think about the place where I met you.
(我經常想起我遇見你的地方。)

* We’ve bought a cottage in the country for when we retire.
= We’ve bought a cottage in the country for the time when we retire.
(我們已經在鄉下買了一間村舍,退休後要去住。)

* Whenever you want to do it is fine with me.
= Any day that you want to do it is fine with me.
(你想什麼時候做,我都沒問題。)

* That was how he treated me. = That was the way (in which) he treated me.
(那就是他對待我的方式。)
(註) 沒有the way how 的用法,因為the way 就等同於 how,一起用就重複了。
* The soup is prepared just how I like it = The soup is prepared just the way I like it.
(這湯調理的方式正是我喜歡的。)

* But – 文言或者古老用法 (用於否定詞之後) = who that do/does not 無人不
-> There is no man but feels pity for those starving children.
(沒有人不同情那些挨餓的孩童。)
->Not a day goes by but that I think of John. = I think of John every day.
(我日日都想起約翰。)

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