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英文「關係代名詞」講解 (2)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: November 11, 2011 – 4:19 pm

本篇講解常用的關係代名詞。

請網友先參閱基本觀念:『英文「關係代名詞」講解 – 基礎篇』。

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1. 限定用法 vs 非限定 (補述) 用法 (identifying and non-identifying clauses)

非限定用法是來補充資訊,可以說明前面名詞的 (整體) 特點或現況,而限定用法則是用來修飾前面的名詞,縮小其所包含的範圍。

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(說明一)  限定用法 vs 非限定 (補述) 用法


* What kind of government would be popular?
– The government which promises to cut taxes.
(怎樣的政府會受歡迎?/ 減稅的政府) – 泛指任何未來 (會減稅) 的政府

* The government, which promises to cut taxes, will be popular.
(政府保證要減稅,它將受到歡迎。) – 指目前政府的聲望問題
= The government – which promises to cut taxes – will be popular.

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(說明二) 非限定 (補述) 用法的絃外之音:


* The concert featured a unique pairing of two Grammy winning guitarists. And the guitarist who (that) played ‘Córdoba’ stirred up my imagination.
(演奏《科爾多瓦》的吉他手激發了我的想像。) – 演奏會中有兩位吉他手,說話者專指其中一位。

* The guitarist, who played ‘Córdoba’ in the party, stirred up my imagination.
(吉他手在聚會中演奏《科爾多瓦》,激發了我的想像。) – 這位吉他手激發我的想像,我「順道」提起他彈了《科爾多瓦》這首吉他曲。如果前文沒有講其他的吉他手,那八成就只有一位吉他手而已。

translation

(說明三)
口譯專家王麗莎指正過一個錯譯,譯者未注意限定與補述用法的差異犯下錯誤。


On our last interpretation session, Lixa had us watch the show ‘Departures 遊歷札記’ on National Geographic. The show documented the trips of two Canadians, Justin and Scott, who have been best friends since high school. Last week, their destination was Japan. The hilarious pair were accompanied by a friend living in Japan to travel around the country. As Scott said “I like him. He’s real fun. And he gets my jokes, which is really really good,” the subtitles under read “我喜歡他, 他很有趣, 他懂我的笑話, 而且我的笑話很好(笑),” which was obviously wrong. What Scott meant was apparently not how great his jokes were, but the fact that his friend, who understood his jokes, was good. Therefore, to do Scott justice, the translators of the show should have translated the sentence into something more like “他都懂我的笑話, 這樣很好.” Scott, after all, didn’t mean to brag about his sense of humor.

(解說) I like hime. He’s real fun. And he gets my jokes, which is really really good. 譯者的錯誤非常明顯,從名詞的單複數便可得知 which is really really good (單數) 是不可能指 jokes (複數)。很顯然,which 在這裡是補述用法,說明 “He gets my jokes” 這件事情很好。

translation

(說明四)
非限定用法既然是補充資訊,因此就可以改寫成 「and + 代名詞」的形式。

* This is Yvonne, who’s joining the company next week.
(這位是伊馮娜,她下禮拜就要來公司上班。) – 補述用法說明 Yvonne 的現況
= This is Yvonne, and she’s joining the company next week.

* I do a lot of walking, which keeps me fit. = I do a lot of walking, and this keeps me fit.
(我走很多路讓自己保持健壯。)

* I dropped the saucepan, which knocked over the eggs, which went all over the floor.
= I dropped the saucepan, and it knocked over the eggs, and they went all over the floor.
(我掉落了平底鍋,鍋子撞到蛋,蛋滾了滿地。)
(解說)第一句 (一個句中運用兩個補述用法) 只是為了講解文法,並非好的寫作方式。版主會改成下面的句子:
I dropped the saucepan, and it knocked over the eggs, which went all over the floor.

* In 1908 Ford developed his Model T car, which sold for $500.
(福特在 1908 年推出 T 型車,當時售價為五百美金。) – 補述用法說明該款車的情況

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(說明五)
限定用法通常不易從句中刪除,因為會讓語意殘缺不全。

* The woman who does my hair has moved to another hairdresser’s.
(幫我做頭髮的那位女士已經到另外一家髮廊了。)
* The woman has moved to another hairdresser’s. (Which woman?)
(那位女士已經到另外一家髮廊了。) (哪位女士呢?)

* She married a man that she met on a bus.
(她嫁給一位她在公車上遇到的男人。)
* She married a man. (她嫁給一位男人) (?)

translation

(說明六)
有時候限定用法與非限定用法的界線模糊,逗號的取捨端視寫作者個人主觀的想法。


* He asked a lot of questions, which were none of his business, and annoyed everybody as a result.
=> He asked a lot of questions which were none of his business and annoyed everybody as a result.
(他問了一大堆事不關己的問題,讓大家感到很厭煩。)

* He’s got a new car that goes like a bomb.
=> He’s got a new car, which goes like a bomb.
(他的新車跑得飛快。)

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