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英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (4)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 30, 2009 – 9:17 am

閱讀本篇英文時態解說之前,版主建議先閱讀『英文時態概論』與『英文文法基本概念:動詞的基本型態』,先掌握基本概念,然後再研究細節。

這是英文『過去簡單式』講解的第四部份,其餘部份在:
英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (1)
英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (2)
英文「過去簡單式」的使用時機 (3)

『過去簡單式』除了用於表示過去曾經發生的事情,還可用於下列情況。請參考以下範例:

◎ 表客氣詢問 (Distancing)

利用過去式來與「現在」保持距離,這樣可讓詢問、要求與建議的口氣顯得更為客氣。

I wonder if you could lend me some money.
(不知你是否可以借我一點錢。)
I wondered if you could lend me some money.
(不知您是否可以借我一點錢。) – 更客氣

I thought you might need some flowers for your new house.
(我在想,你也許需要些鮮花來裝飾新家。) – 客氣的建議

How much did you want to spend, sir?
(不知您有多少預算呢?)
(說明) 這不是簡單過去式的用法,因為商家有可能當著你的面說這句話。

(以下是一則瘦身廣告)
5 Tips to Get a Flat Stomach (瘦小腹的五大秘訣)
*Did you know that crunches & sit-ups actually do NOT flatten your abs effectively?
(您可知道仰臥起坐根本無法有效縮減小腹嗎?)
*Did you know that there is a specific type of exercise that burns belly fat faster than cardio?
(您可知道有另一種運動比有氧運動更能縮減小腹嗎?)
*Did you know that certain foods such as soy proteins, “diet” drinks, and others can actually increase your stomach fat?
(您可知道諸如黃豆蛋白、「瘦身」飲料與其他飲品可能會增加腹部脂肪嗎?)
More details in the article below…
(想知道更多嗎? 請閱讀下面的文章…)

 

◎ 表示『過去如此,如今不再是如此』的想法

I think you are an American.
(我認為你是美國人) – 也許會一直認為下去
Sorry, I thought you were an American.
(我以為你是美國人) – 現在不以為了

“No body ever lets me do what I want.”
(沒有一個人讓我做我想做的。 )
“And I thought that you had changed, but I see that you haven’t changed a bit.”
(我原以為你已有所改變,看來你還是老樣子,一點都沒變。)

(比較)
“That movie was a three-hanky tear jerker.”
(那部電影真是賺人熱淚! )
“Yes. I thought it was the saddest movie I had ever seen in my life.”
(/是啊,我長這麼大還沒看過這麼悲慘的電影。)
(說明) 此處的 I thought 是「過去真正的想法」,並非是「目前的以為」。英文可由「現在的角度」與「過去的角度」來講述事情,閱讀時要多留意區別。

Did you forget I was coming?
(你難道忘了我要來嗎?) – 你現在已經記起來了! – 責備的口吻

Why don’t you take away this trash? (你何不拿走這些垃圾?) -建議
Why didn’t you take away this trash? (你為何沒有拿走這些垃圾?) -責備

(說明)
” Did you forget I am coming? ” 這句話說不通,因為說 ” I’m coming ” 的時候, 你的人還未到現場,上述的例子是人到現場後指責對方的話語。
根據「近水樓台」的原則,附屬子句通常是要跟主要子句的時態來變化。請參考下列例句:

(例句一)
 “I’m coming! (我馬上就來了!) ” Julie yelled at the sound of her partner’s car horn outside her door. She knew he couldn’t hear her, but she kept calling anyhow. “Just a minute, I’m coming!” She ran breathlessly around her apartment, grabbing last-minute items from every room.
(男朋友正在門外按喇叭時,女主角還在家裡四處尋找化粧品。)

(例句二)
“Honey, I’ve got good news for you!”
“Just a minute, I’m coming!” (等我ㄧ下!)
~//~
“Okay, I’m here now. What’s the good news?”
(好啦!我來了/我忙完了,有什麼好康的?)  

 

◎ It is time + 過去式

It’s time 後面的句子雖用過去式,但卻是表達「現在」的概念。

It’s time she went to bed.
(她該上床睡覺了。)

It’s time you washed those trousers.
(你該洗那些褲子了。)

I’m getting tired. It’s time we went home.
(我有點累了,我們該回家去了。)

It’s time we were going.
= It’s time for us to go.
= We should leave now. (我們該走了。)

 

◎ 過去時態表示的其他心境與想法

英語有繁複的時態觀念,老美會善用這種特點來表達心中細膩的想法,避免用尖銳的字眼來訴說心中的想法。

I never thought I’d live to see the day when women became priests.
(我怎麼也想不到,女人還有當上神父的這一天。)
//(live to) see the day = to experience something that you thought would never happen

“I never thought I’d see you here.”
(真沒想到能在這裡碰到你!) – 說話者非常高興
“Ditto. Why are you here?”
(就是啊。你怎麼到這裡來啦?)





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