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英文「關係代名詞」講解 (3)
撰文者: Wayne 發表日期: March 1, 2012 – 7:09 am

本篇再補充關係代名詞的限定與補述用法。

請網友先參閱基本觀念:『英文「關係代名詞」講解 – 基礎篇』。順道複習一下限定用法與補述用法的差異:

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1. 限定用法 vs 非限定 (補述) 用法 (identifying and non-identifying clauses)

非限定用法是來補充資訊,可以說明前面名詞的 (整體) 特點或現況,而限定用法則是用來修飾前面的名詞,縮小其所包含的範圍。

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(說明一)  限定用法 vs 非限定 (補述) 用法


* What kind of government would be popular?
– The government which promises to cut taxes.
(怎樣的政府會受歡迎?/ 減稅的政府) – 泛指任何未來 (會減稅) 的政府

* The government, which promises to cut taxes, will be popular.
(政府保證要減稅,它將受到歡迎。) – 指目前政府的聲望問題
= The government – which promises to cut taxes – will be popular.

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(說明二) 關係代名詞 ‘that’ 不能用在非限定 (補述) 用法,亦即 that 的前面不能加逗號。

* I lent him ‘The Old Man and the Sea’, which is really easy to read. – 正確句子 (補述)
(我借他《老人與海》,那本書非常容易讀。)

* I lent him ‘The Old Man and the Sea’, that is really easy to read. – 錯誤句子 (補述)

* He asked a lot of questions, which were none of his business and annoyed everybody as a result. – 正確句子 (補述)
= He asked a lot of questions which were none of his business and annoyed everybody as a result. – 正確句子 (限定)

(他問了一大堆事不關己的問題,讓大家感到很厭煩。)

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(說明三) 在補述用法中,關係子句的受詞不能省略。

* What do you think of the wine (that) we drank last night? – 正確句子 (限定的受詞可省略)
(我們昨晚喝的酒,你覺得如何?)

* I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once. – 正確句子
(我替他倒了一杯酒,他立刻就喝下去。)
* I poured him a glass of wine, he drank at once.(?) – 錯誤句子

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(說明四) 補述用法的進階使用。

數量 + of + 關係代名詞

* They picked up five boat-loads of refugees, some of whom had been at sea for several months.
= They picked up five boat-loads of refugees, of whom some had been at sea for several months.
(他們救起五船的難民,有些難民已經在海上漂流數個月。)

* Both players, neither of whom reached the final, played well.
(兩名運動員表現良好,但都未能打進決賽。)

* We’ve tested two hundred types of boot, none of which is completely waterproof.
= We’ve tested two hundred types of boot, of which none is completely waterproof.
(我們測試過兩百種靴子,沒有一種可完全防水。)

*  They’ve got eight children, all of whom are studying music.
= They’ve got eight children, of whom all are studying music.
(他們有八個小孩,全部都在學習音樂。)

* She had a teddy-bear, both of whose eyes were missing.
(她有一隻泰迪熊,熊的雙眼都遺失了。)

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